Administration of aluminium to neonatal mice in vaccine relevant amounts is associated with adverse long term neurological outcomes. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 2013

A correlation between increasing ASD rates and aluminium (Al) adjuvants in common use in paediatric vaccines in several Western countries. The correlation between ASD rate and Al adjuvant amounts appears to be dose-dependent.


Aluminum adjuvant linked to gulf war illness induces motor neuron death in mice. Neuromolecular Medicine, 2007

Young, male colony CD-1 mice were injected with the adjuvants at doses equivalent to those given to US military service personnel. Behavioral testing showed motor deficits in the aluminum treatment group that expressed as a progressive decrease in strength. Significant cognitive deficits were observed in the combined aluminum and squalene group


Aluminum and Alzheimer’s disease: after a century of controversy, is there a plausible link? Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 2011

Experimental evidence has repeatedly demonstrated that chronic Aluminum (Al) intoxication reproduces neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimers’ Disease (AD). Misconceptions about Al bioavailability may have misled scientists regarding the significance of Al in the pathogenesis of AD. The hypothesis that Al significantly contributes to AD is built upon very solid experimental evidence and should not be dismissed. Immediate steps should be taken to lessen human exposure to Al, which may be the single most aggravating and avoidable factor related to AD.


Aluminium and breast cancer: Sources of exposure, tissue measurements and mechanisms of toxicological actions on breast biology Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 2013

The presence of aluminium in the human breast may also alter the breast microenvironment causing disruption to iron metabolism, oxidative damage to cellular components, inflammatory responses and alterations to the motility of cells.


Aluminum Vaccine Adjuvants: Are They Safe? Current Medical Chemistry, 2011

Experimental research clearly shows that aluminum adjuvants have a potential to induce serious immunological disorders in humans. In particular, aluminum in adjuvant form carries a risk for autoimmunity, long-term brain inflammation and associated neurological complications and may thus have profound and widespread adverse health consequences


Elevated brain aluminium and early onset Alzheimer’s disease in an individual occupationally exposed to aluminium: a case report. Journal of Medical Case Reports, 2014

A 66-year-old Caucasian man who died with Alzheimer’s disease showed significantly elevated brain aluminium content following occupational exposure to aluminium over a period of 8 years.


Mechanisms of aluminum adjuvant toxicity and autoimmunity in pediatric populations. Lupus. 2012

Aluminum (Al) vaccine adjuvants have been linked to a variety of serious autoimmune and inflammatory conditions (i.e., “ASIA”), yet children are regularly exposed to much higher amounts of Al from vaccines than adults; (iii) it is often assumed that peripheral immune responses do not affect brain function.


Experimental Epilepsy in Monkey Following Multiple Intracerebral injections of Alumina Cream. Journal of Urban Health, 1953

The multiple intracerebral injection of alumina cream (aluminum hydroxide cream) into a principal cerebral sensorimotor cortical area is effective in producing chronic epilepsy in monkeys.


Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity in humans and animals, vaccine adjuvants, and autoimmunity. Immunologic Research, 2013

In young children, a highly significant correlation exists between the number of pediatric aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines administered and the rate of autism spectrum disorders.


Are there negative CNS impacts of aluminum adjuvants used in vaccines and immunotherapy? Immunotherapy, 2014

Autoimmune and inflammatory responses affecting the CNS appear to underlie some forms of neurological disease, including developmental disorders. Aluminum (Al) has been demonstrated to impact the CNS at every level, including by changing gene expression. These outcomes should raise concerns about the increasing use of Al salts as vaccine adjuvants and for the application as more general immune stimulants.


Mechanisms of aluminum adjuvant toxicity and autoimmunity in pediatric populations. Lupus, 2012

When assessing adjuvant toxicity in children, several key points ought to be considered: (i) infants and children should not be viewed as “small adults” with regard to toxicological risk as their unique physiology makes them much more vulnerable to toxic insults; (ii) in adult humans Al vaccine adjuvants have been linked to a variety of serious autoimmune and inflammatory conditions (i.e., “ASIA”), yet children are regularly exposed to much higher amounts of Al from vaccines than adults; (iii) it is often assumed that peripheral immune responses do not affect brain function. However, it is now clearly established that there is a bidirectional neuro-immune cross-talk that plays crucial roles in immunoregulation as well as brain function. In turn, perturbations of the neuro-immune axis have been demonstrated in many autoimmune diseases encompassed in “ASIA” and are thought to be driven by a hyperactive immune response; and (iv) the same components of the neuro-immune axis that play key roles in brain development and immune function are heavily targeted by Al adjuvants.


Aluminium neurotoxicity: neurobehavioural and oxidative aspects.

However, there is no known physiological role for aluminium within the body and hence this metal may produce adverse physiological effects. Chronic exposure of animals to aluminium is associated with behavioural, neuropathological and neurochemical changes. Among them, deficits of learning and behavioural functions are most evident. Some epidemiological studies have shown poor performance in cognitive tests and a higher abundance of neurological symptoms for workers occupationally exposed to aluminium.

Current researches show that any impairment in mitochondrial functions may play a major role in many human disorders including neurodegenerative disorders. Being involved in the production of reactive oxygen species, aluminium may cause impairments in mitochondrial bioenergetics and may lead to the generation of oxidative stress which may lead to a gradual accumulation of oxidatively modified cellular proteins.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19568732


Aluminum Toxicity

If a significant aluminum load exceeds the body’s excretory capacity, the excess is deposited in various tissues, including bone, brain, liver, heart, spleen, and muscle. This accumulation causes morbidity and mortality through various mechanisms.
https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/165315-overview#a4


Link between Aluminum and the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease: The Integration of the Aluminum and Amyloid Cascade Hypotheses

aluminum is a widely recognized neurotoxin that inhibits more than 200 biologically important functions and causes various adverse effects in plants, animals, and humans. The relationship between aluminum exposure and neurodegenerative diseases, including dialysis encephalopathy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinsonism dementia in the Kii Peninsula and Guam, and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been suggested.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3056430/


Do aluminum vaccine adjuvants contribute to the rising prevalence of autism?

Our results show that: (i) children from countries with the highest ASD prevalence appear to have the highest exposure to Al from vaccines; (ii) the increase in exposure to Al adjuvants significantly correlates with the increase in ASD prevalence in the United States observed over the last two decades (Pearson r=0.92, p<0.0001); and (iii) a significant correlation exists between the amounts of Al administered to preschool children and the current prevalence of ASD in seven Western countries, particularly at 3-4 months of age (Pearson r=0.89-0.94, p=0.0018-0.0248). The application of the Hill’s criteria to these data indicates that the correlation between Al in vaccines and ASD may be causal.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22099159


Aluminum vaccine adjuvants: are they safe?

Despite almost 90 years of widespread use of aluminum adjuvants, medical science’s understanding about their mechanisms of action is still remarkably poor. There is also a concerning scarcity of data on toxicology and pharmacokinetics of these compounds. In spite of this, the notion that aluminum in vaccines is safe appears to be widely accepted. Experimental research, however, clearly shows that aluminum adjuvants have a potential to induce serious immunological disorders in humans. In particular, aluminum in adjuvant form carries a risk for autoimmunity, long-term brain inflammation and associated neurological complications and may thus have profound and widespread adverse health consequences. In our opinion, the possibility that vaccine benefits may have been overrated and the risk of potential adverse effects underestimated, has not been rigorously evaluated in the medical and scientific community.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21568886


Aluminum hydroxide injections lead to motor deficits and motor neuron degeneration

The demonstrated neurotoxicity of aluminum hydroxide and its relative ubiquity as an adjuvant suggest that greater scrutiny by the scientific community is warranted.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2819810/


Administration of aluminium to neonatal mice in vaccine-relevant amounts is associated with adverse long term neurological outcomes.

These current data implicate Al injected in early postnatal life in some CNS alterations that may be relevant for a better understanding of the aetiology of ASD.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23932735


Aluminium overload after 5 years in skin biopsy following post-vaccination with subcutaneous pseudolymphoma.

The possible release of Al may induce other pathologies ascribed to the well-known toxicity of this metal.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22425036


Aluminum adjuvant linked to Gulf War illness induces motor neuron death in mice.

Aluminum-treated groups also showed significant motor neuron loss (35%) and increased numbers of astrocytes (350%) in the lumbar spinal cord. The findings suggest a possible role for the aluminum adjuvant in some neurological features associated with GWI and possibly an additional role for the combination of adjuvants.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17114826

Autism Spectrum Disorders and Aluminum Vaccine Adjuvants

It appears plausible that disruptions of critical events in immune development may also play a role in the establishment of neurobehavioral disorders; (iv) the same immune system components that play key roles in brain development appear to be targeted for impairment by Al adjuvants. In summary, research data suggests that vaccines containing Al may be a contributing etiological factor in the increasing incidence of autism.
https://rd.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-1-4614-4788-7_89


Neurobehavioral toxic effects of perinatal oral exposure to aluminum on the developmental motor reflexes, learning, memory and brain neurotransmitters of mice offspring

“Neurobehavioral toxic effects of perinatal oral exposure to aluminum on the developmental motor reflexes, learning, memory and brain neurotransmitters of mice offspring.”http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091305711003583


Etiology of autism spectrum disorders: Genes, environment, or both?

In this review we discuss the mechanisms by which Al can induce adverse neurological and immunological effects and how these may provide important clues of Al’s putative role in autism. Because of the tight connection between the development of the immune and the central nervous system, the possibility that immune-overstimulation in early infancy via vaccinations may play a role in neurobehavioural disorders needs to be carefully considered.
http://www.oapublishinglondon.com/article/1368#


Macrophagic myofasciitis: characterization and pathophysiology

Clinical symptoms associated with MMF are paradigmatic of the recently delineated ‘autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants’ (ASIA)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22235051


Clinical features in patients with long-lasting macrophagic myofasciitis

Cognitive dysfunction seems stable over time despite marked fluctuations. Evoked potentials may show abnormalities in keeping with central nervous system involvement, with a neurophysiological pattern suggestive of demyelination. Brain perfusion SPECT shows a pattern of diffuse cortical and subcortical abnormalities, with hypoperfusions correlating with cognitive deficiencies.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25506338


Central nervous system disease in patients with macrophagic myofasciitis

The association between MMF and multiple sclerosis-like disorders may give new insights into the controversial issues surrounding vaccinations and demyelinating CNS disorders.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11335699


Slow CCL2-dependent translocation of biopersistent particles from muscle to brain

Intramuscular injection of alum-containing vaccine was associated with the appearance of aluminum deposits in distant organs, such as spleen and brain where they were still detected one year after injection.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23557144


Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) 2013: Unveiling the pathogenic, clinical and diagnostic aspects

All these environmental factors have been found to induce autoimmunity by themselves both in animal models and in humans: for instance, silicone was associated with siliconosis, aluminum hydroxide with post-vaccination phenomena and macrophagic myofasciitis syndrome.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24238833


On vaccine’s adjuvants and autoimmunity: Current evidence and future perspectives

Adjuvants have recently been implicated in the new syndrome named “ASIA-Autoimmune/inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants”, which describes an umbrella of clinical conditions including post-vaccination adverse reactions. Recent studies implicate a web of mechanisms in the development of vaccine adjuvant-induced autoimmune diseases, in particular, in those associated with aluminium-based compounds.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26031899


Predicting post-vaccination autoimmunity: who might be at risk?

It has been postulated that autoimmunity could be triggered or enhanced by the vaccine immunogen contents, as well as by adjuvants, which are used to increase the immune reaction to the immunogen.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25277820


Slow CCL2-dependent translocation of biopersistent particles from muscle to brain

Continuously escalating doses of this poorly biodegradable adjuvant in the population may become insidiously unsafe, especially in the case of overimmunization or immature/altered blood brain barrier or high constitutive CCL-2 production.
https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1741-7015-11-99


[Lessons from macrophagic myofasciitis: towards definition of a vaccine adjuvant-related syndrome]

Multiple vaccinations performed over a short period of time in the Persian gulf area have been recognized as the main risk factor for Gulf War syndrome.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12660567

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