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Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis After Influenza Vaccination: A Case Report Critical Care Nurse

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that has been associated with the influenza immunization [vaccination]. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis developed in a 42-year-old woman within three weeks of receiving the seasonal influenza [flu] vaccine.
http://m.ccn.aacnjournals.org/content/36/3/e1.full.pdf


Use of the inactivated intranasal influenza vaccine and the risk of Bell’s palsy in Switzerland.

After the introduction of an inactivated intranasal influenza vaccine that was used only in Switzerland, 46 cases of Bell’s palsy were reported.
https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Use-of-the-inactivated-intranasal-influenza-vaccine-Mutsch-Zhou/419a598b63a01091e7e28aa1d3f40ef4ca8d7d9a?fbclid=IwAR0RWDsVasEoZ5BBCauHAAYC3bD-ESeaPysouGfywnLePY5PSr6BnmG0PI8


Effectiveness of influenza vaccine during pregnancy in preventing hospitalizations and outpatient visits for respiratory illness in pregnant women and their infants.

A study published in the American Journal of Perinatology of vaccine effectiveness in pregnant women in Northern California across five flu seasons found that women who received flu vaccines during pregnancy had the same risk for influenza-like illness as unvaccinated women, and infants born to women who received flu vaccines also had the same risks for influenza or pneumonia as infants born to unvaccinated women. In other words, vaccine status made no difference to whether or not pregnant women or their offspring got the flu.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15311370


Postmarketing adverse drug reactions

A 2013 article in Neurology Clinical Practice calculated that only between 1 and 10 percent of adverse reactions are actually reported by physicians. Applying that calculus, the actual range of deaths following flu vaccination in the past 25 years may be between 5,600 and 56,000
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3787113/


A Perfect Storm: Impact of Genomic Variation and Serial Vaccination on Low Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness During the 2014–2015 Season

In a peer-reviewed study published in Clinical Infectious Diseases in March 2016, a team of Canadian researchers found that people who were vaccinated against the flu three years in a row were actually at higher risk of being infected with the flu.”
https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/63/1/21/1745238


Benefits of influenza vaccination on influenza-related mortality among elderly in the US: an unexpected finding

When a team of researchers at the National Institutes of Health compared flu vaccine rates with influenza-related illness over a 19-year period, from 1980 to 1999, they found that deaths from the flu increased as vaccination rates increased. “In conclusion, the increase in elderly influenza vaccination coverage in the U.S. after 1980 was not accompanied by a decline in influenza-related mortality.”
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0531513104001694


Impact of Influenza Vaccination on Seasonal Mortality in the US Elderly Population

A study, led by a researcher at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and published in the journal Archives of Internal Medicine, found that increasing vaccination coverage did not correlate with declining mortality and the decline in influenza-related mortality could not be attributed to the flu vaccine but was rather the result of naturally acquired immunity. Observational studies crediting the flu vaccine with contributing to decreased deaths from the flu, “substantially overestimate vaccination benefit.”
http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/486407


Febrile Seizure Risk after Vaccination in Children One to Five Months of Age Pediatric Neurology

Vaccination in children aged three to five months was associated with a large relative risk of febrile seizure on the day of and the day after vaccination. [Febrile seizures can lead to permanent seizure disorders including epilepsy, see our page on seizures]
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28958404


Vaccine administration and the development of immune thrombocytopenic purpura in children Human Vaccines & Immunotherapies.

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an adverse event that can follow vaccine administration, and may limit vaccine use because little is known about which vaccines it may follow, its real incidence and severity, the risk of chronic disease, or the possibility of recurrences after new doses of the same vaccine.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=23324619


Adverse events following administration to pregnant women of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System [Death and miscarriages reported to VAERS after influenza vaccine] Vaccine

VAERS received 294 reports of AEs (Adverse Events) in pregnant women who received 2009-H1N1 vaccine. Two maternal deaths were reported. Fifty-nine women (20.1%) were hospitalized. We verified 131 pregnancy-specific outcomes: 95 spontaneous abortions (<20 weeks); 18 stillbirths (≥20 weeks).
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21861964


Acute Lung Injury Accompanying Alveolar Hemorrhage Associated with Flu Vaccination in the Elderly Internal medicine 

We describe a case of acute lung injury resulting from a pathologically confirmed alveolar hemorrhage, which may have been closely related to a preceding vaccination for influenza [flu]. We should consider a vaccine-related adverse reaction as a potential cause of pulmonary disease. Pulmonary injury or alveolar hemorrhage in the influenza season should always prompt physicians to consider the possibility of flu vaccination- related ADR.
https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/internalmedicine/54/24/54_54.4894/_pdf


Acute renal failure after influenza vaccination: a case report J Prev Med Hyg. 2014

A fifty-three year old surgeon had acute renal [kidney] failure consisting with acute tubulo-interstizial nephropaty twelve days after influenza [flu] vaccination
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4718337/


Deaths Reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, United States,1997-2013 Clinical Infectious Diseases 2015

Temporally associated deaths can occur following vaccination. VAERS received 2149 death reports, most (68.4%) in children.
https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/61/6/980/451431


Acute upper respiratory tract viral illness and influenza immunization in homes for the elderly Epidemiology & Infection
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2271825/


Comparison of VAERS fetal-loss reports during three consecutive influenza seasons Human & Experimental Toxicology, 2013

4000% increase in miscarriage data from VAERS
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3888271/


Association of spontaneous abortion with receipt of inactivated influenza vaccine containing H1N1pdm09 in 2010-11 and 2011-12. Vaccine, 2017

A CDC published study links spontaneous abortions in women to flu vaccines.  The study reviewed data for the 2010-11 and 2011-12 flu seasons.  Women vaccinated with the inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in the 2010-2011 season had 3.7-fold greater odds of experiencing a spontaneous abortion within 28 days than women not receiving the vaccine.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28917295


Influenza vaccine-induced interstitial lung disease 

Reports of interstitial lung disease (ILD) caused by influenza vaccine have been published…Clinicians should be aware of the risk for ILD induced by influenza vaccine. It may become serious without treatment.
http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/41/2/474.long


Recurrent isolated sixth nerve palsy after consecutive annual influenza vaccinations in a child Journal AAPOS

We report the case of recurrent isolated sixth nerve palsy after consecutive annual influenza vaccinations in an otherwise-healthy 2-year-old boy. [Sixth nerve palsy is a brain disorder which weakens the nerve causing eye misalignment such as crossed eyes, lazy eye or strabismus.]
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=19285888


Guillain-Barré syndrome after vaccination in United States: data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Food and Drug Administration Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (1990-2005) Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease

Reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) after receiving vaccinations. [The] influenza [flu] vaccine can be associated with GBS. Vaccination-related GBS results in death or disability in one fifth of affected individuals. [Guillain-Barré syndrome refers to nerve damage that typically causes paralysis.]
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=19730016


Acute respiratory failure secondary to eosinophilic pneumonia following influenza vaccination in an elderly man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Intl Journal of Infectious Disease

Acute respiratory [lung] failure with diffuse pulmonary opacities following influenza [flu] vaccination. We report a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who developed fever with worsening of respiratory symptoms and severe hypoxemia requiring ventilatory support shortly after influenza [flu] vaccination.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S120197121401515X


Membranous nephropathy and severe acute kidney injury following influenza vaccination Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation, 2015

We report a patient who developed acute-onset massive proteinuria with nephrotic syndrome and severe acute kidney injury soon after receiving the influenza [flu] vaccine. Kidney biopsy showed membranous nephropathy and acute interstitial nephritis.
http://www.sjkdt.org/article.asp?issn=1319-2442;year=2015;volume=26;issue=6;spage=1289;epage=1293;aulast=Patel


Inactivated vaccines in children aged two years or younger are not significantly more efficacious than placebo Cochrane Database Review

Monovalent pandemic vaccine is associated with cataplexy and narcolepsy in children… Little evidence [of efficacy of the flu vaccine] is available for children younger than two years of age. No safety comparisons could be carried out… Influenza [flu] vaccines were associated with serious harms such as narcolepsy and febrile convulsions.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22895945


Narcolepsy and hypersomnia in Norwegian children and young adults following the influenza A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic Elsevier, 2017

Increased hazard ratios of narcolepsy following vaccination.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264410X17302669?via%3Dihub


Increased Risk of Noninfluenza Respiratory Virus Infections Associated With Receipt of Inactivated Influenza Vaccine

Also, 4 times the risk of other respiratory illnesses after receiving flu vaccine. (Increased Risk of Non-Influenza Respiratory Virus Infections Associated with Receipt of Inactivated Influenza Vaccine)
https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/54/12/1778/455098


Yearly influenza vaccinations: a double-edged sword?

Annual vaccination against common strains of influenza reduces protective immunity against more dangerous strains of the disease.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19879807


Association between the 2008-09 seasonal influenza vaccine and pandemic H1N1 illness during Spring-Summer 2009: four observational studies from Canada

Prior vaccination against seasonal influenza may increase the risk of contracting a severe case of pandemic influenza.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20386731


Vaccination against human influenza A/H3N2 virus prevents the induction of heterosubtypic immunity against lethal infection with avian influenza A/H5N1 virus

Mice that were infected with a seasonal influenza virus survived exposure to a lethal influenza strain; vaccinated mice died.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19440239


Influenza vaccine effectiveness in the community and the household

The current season’s influenza vaccine will not work in people who also received the previous season’s influenza vaccine.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23413420


Comparison of VAERS fetal-loss reports during three consecutive influenza seasons: was there a synergistic fetal toxicity associated with the two-vaccine 2009/2010 season?

Pregnant women vaccinated against seasonal influenza and A-H1N1 (swine flu) had high rates of spontaneous abortions.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23023030


Influenza Vaccination During Pregnancy:
A Critical Assessment of the Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices

CDC policy to vaccinate pregnant women with thimerosal-containing influenza vaccines is not supported by science.
http://thinktwice.com/Influenza_vaccination_during_pregnancy_Ayoub_Yazbak.pdf


Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy children

Influenza vaccines are not effective in young children; safety data can’t be trusted.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22895945


Effectiveness of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in influenza-related hospitalization in children: a case-control study

Children who receive an inactivated influenza vaccine are significantly more likely than non-vaccinated children to be hospitalized.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22525386


Influenza vaccination and Guillain Barre syndrome

Influenza vaccination increases the risk of Guillain Barre syndrome (GBS)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12763480


Impact of influenza vaccination on seasonal mortality in the US elderly population

We could not correlate increasing vaccination coverage after 1980 with declining mortality rates in any age group. Because fewer than 10% of all winter deaths were attributable to influenza in any season, we conclude that observational studies substantially overestimate vaccination benefit.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15710788


Influenza vaccination for healthcare workers who care for people aged 60 or older living in long-term care institutions

The results for specific outcomes: laboratory-proven influenza or its complications (lower respiratory tract infection, or hospitalisation or death due to lower respiratory tract illness) did not identify a benefit of healthcare worker vaccination on these key outcomes. This review does not provide reasonable evidence to support the vaccination of healthcare workers to prevent influenza in those aged 60 years or older resident in LTCIs.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23881655


Influenza vaccines: time for a rethink

I show that there is no good evidence that vaccines reduce serious complications of influenza, the outcomes the policy is meant to address. In addition, there are potential vaccine-related harms, as unexpected and serious adverse effects of influenza vaccines have occurred.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23553143


Are US flu death figures more PR than science?

If flu is in fact not a major cause of death, this public relations approach is surely exaggerated.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1309667/


Vitamin D and Respiratory Tract Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Results indicate that vitamin D has a protective effect against RTI, and dosing once-daily seems most effective.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23840373


Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren

This study suggests that vitamin D(3) supplementation during the winter may reduce the incidence of influenza A, especially in specific subgroups of schoolchildren.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20219962


Immunomodulatory and Physical Effects of Oil Composition in Vaccine Adjuvant Emulsions

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3224191/pdf/nihms-322834.pdf


Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following inactivated influenza vaccination in the Brazilian Amazon: a case report

“Here, we describe a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) that occurred during a plausible risk interval following inactivated influenza vaccination in a previously healthy 27-year-old man from Manaus, Brazil. He was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone and immunoglobulin. One-month follow-up revealed resolution of the brain lesions, but not of the spinal cord lesions. No recurrence or progression of the main neurological symptoms was observed. After two years of monitoring, the patient continues to experience weak lower limbs and urinary retention. Thus, we recommend that ADEM should be considered in a patient presenting with neurological symptoms after influenza vaccination.” Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 2015
http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822015000400498&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en


Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following influenza vaccination: report of a case with callosal disconnection syndrome

We present a case of callosal disconnection syndrome as a rare manifestation of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). A dextral 48-year-old Japanese woman received trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in mid-November 2011. Twenty days later, she was found to be in a daze. Subsequently, she developed abnormal behavior and gait disturbance, and she was disoriented regarding time and place.” Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2014
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24583588/


Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis after pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccination

We report a case of acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) after pandemic influenza (H1N1) vaccination. A 57-year-old man, who had been diagnosed with IPF in September 2008, was admitted to our hospital in December 2009 because of aggravation of dyspnea and fever two days after H1N1 vaccination.” Internal Medicine 2010
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21048370/


Acute Onset of Parkinsonism With Reversible Course After H1N1 Vaccination: Insight From a Young Lady

“To the Editor: Parkinsonian symptoms can be induced by acute encephalitis, syphilis, malaria, poliomyelitis, and sudden carbon monoxide poisoning.1,2 In this report, a 17-year-old girl had Parkinson’s disease (PD) symptoms after a flu shot. So far, this is the first vaccine-related disorder that mimics PD. Our experience has shown that some parkinsonism can be cured with accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.” The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2012
http://neuro.psychiatryonline.org/doi/pdf/10.1176/appi.neuropsych.11110324


Acute transverse myelitis following vaccination against H1N1 influenza: a case report

H1N1 vaccination is currently safe, and only rare acceptable side-effects have been reported. Here we describe for the first time a serious adverse event, i.e., acute transverse myelitis, following H1N1 vaccination in China. After the standard treatment with methylprednislone, the patient recovered completely.” International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology-Open 2011
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21487527/


Allergic alveolitis after influenza vaccination

Allergic alveolitis as a side effect of vaccination is very rare. We report a life-threatening complication in a female patient after influenza vaccination. The causative antigen was the influenza virus itself. Our Patient has suffered from exogen-allergic alveolitis for 12 years.” Pneumologie 2009
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19708009/


ANCA-associated vasculitis following influenza vaccination: causal association or mere coincidence?

Whether autoimmune or rheumatic disease may be precipitated after vaccination is controversially discussed among experts. Here we describe 4 cases of new onset or relapsing antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies associated vasculitis occurring in timely association with influenza vaccination.” Journal of Clinical Rheumatology 2009
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19734734/


Antibody response in man to Hong Kong influenza following 1967 formula influenza vaccine in adjuvant 65

“The adjuvant preparation consists of a water-in- peanut oil emulsion of the aqueous vaccine, employing mannide monooleate (Arlacel A) as emulsifier and aluminum monostearate as stabilizer.” SAGE Journal 1969
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.3181/00379727-131-33911?journalCode=ebma


Are toxic biometals destroying your children’s future?

Cadmium, arsenic, lead, and mercury have been linked to autism, attention deficit disorder, mental retardation and death of children. Mercury in thimerosal found in many vaccines and flu shots contributes significantly to these problems.BioMetals 2009
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19205900/


Bilateral optic neuropathy with loss of vision after an influenza vaccination in a patient suffering from mixed connective tissue disease

CASE REPORT: A 62-year-old-woman was hospitalized for bilateral optic neuropathy with loss of vision. The symptoms occurred 15 days after a seasonal influenza vaccination.” Revue Neurologique (Paris) 2010
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21067788/


Can influenza H1N1 vaccination lead to the membranous glomerulonephritis?

In 2009 winter, Influenza A (H1N1) monovalent split virus vaccine was used prevalently in the whole world as a result of the pandemic caused by Influenza (H1N1) virus.” Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2010
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22771654/


A case of Evans’ syndrome following influenza vaccine

“CASE REPORT: A 50-year-old man with no prior medical history developed Evans’ syndrome 4 days after receiving influenza immunization. The patient improved following treatment with oral prednisone and intravenous immunoglobulin. Journal of Emergency Medicine 2013
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22796025/


Case Report; Influenza vaccination-associated acute lung injury: two cases report
Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi 2015
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26513964/


Despite awareness of recommendations, why do health care workers not immunize pregnant women?

“Studies indicate uncertainty surrounding vaccination safety and efficacy for pregnant women, causing a central problem for health authorities. In this study, approximately 26% of participants do not recommend the tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis and influenza vaccines to their patients, although being aware of the health ministry recommendations.” American Journal of Infection Control 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28063725/


Drug-induced anaemia: a decade review of reporting to the Italian Pharmacovigilance data-base.

“…13 for flu vaccine for the occurrence of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia.” International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy 2015
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25515616/


Efficacy of a Russian-backbone live attenuated influenza vaccine among children in Senegal: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

“Symptomatic influenza was laboratory-confirmed in 210 (18%) of 1173 recipients of live attenuated influenza vaccine. “INTERPRETATION: Live attenuated influenza vaccine was well tolerated in young children in Senegal, but did not provide protection against influenza.” Lancet Glob Health 2016
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27746224/


Encephalitis related to a H1N1 vaccination: case report and review of the literature.

“CONCLUSIONS: The available data suggest that even severe central nervous system demyelination i.e. acute encephalitis/disseminated encephalomyelitis and transverse myelitis may very rarely be associated with vaccination against novel influenza A/H1N1 or with A/H1N1 infection itself.” Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 2014
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24996055/


Encephalomyelitis and bilateral optic perineuritis after influenza vaccination.

“We report the case of one patient suffering from headache, urinary retention, bilateral optic disc swelling and a mild bilateral visual defect after influenza vaccination.” Ophthalmologia 2000
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/11126677/


Exacerbation of pemphigus after influenza vaccination.

“Pemphigus is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by flaccid blisters and erosions on skin and mucous epithelia. A critical event in its pathogenesis is production of antidesmoglein antibodies, which mediate the loss of intercellular adhesion in epithelia, leading to blister formation. Multiple environmental factors (ultraviolet radiation, trauma, drugs, infective agents) have been suggested as possible triggers of pemphigus. Occasionally, the disease has been reported to follow viral and bacterial vaccination. We describe a patient who experienced exacerbation of pemphigus shortly after administration of the influenza vaccination on two separate occasions. We review the literature, suggest possible explanations for a causal relationship, and discuss the administration of vaccination to these patients.” Clinical and Experimental Dermatology 2008
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18681883/


Extranodal MALT Lymphoma of the Right Triceps Muscle following Influenza Vaccine Injection: A Rare Case with an Interesting Presentation

The study describes a case of a 67-year-old female who developed a Stage I E marginal zone lymphoma of the right triceps muscle 1 month after influenza vaccination at the same site.” SRN Hematology 2011
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22084699/


Failure of inactivated influenza A vaccine to protect healthy children aged 6-24 months

“Inactivated influenza vaccine did not reduce the attack rate of influenza A infection in 6-24 month old children.” Pediatrics International 2004
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15056235


Fatal intracranial bleed potentially due to a warfarin and influenza vaccine interaction

A 64-year-old white male was admitted to the hospital after becoming unresponsive. The family reported a 2-day history of bleeding from the patient’s rectum prior to admission. He had no recent changes in medical conditions or medication regimen, which included warfarin for stroke prophylaxis secondary to atrial fibrillation. The patient had received an inactivated influenza vaccine 4(1/2) weeks prior to presentation,(…)” Annals Pharmacotherapy 2009
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19336651/


Guillain-Barré Syndrome after H1N1 Shot in Pregnancy: Maternal and Fetal Care in the Third Trimester-Case Report

“We presented a case of a 36-year-old pregnant woman that was immunized to H1N1 in the last trimester; 10 days later she developed shoulder and lumbar spine’s pain, limbs weakness and facial paralysis with unfavorable clinical evolution and was submitted to intensive therapy care. We described clinical and obstetrical approach, pointing out peculiarities involved in this pathology in pregnancy.” Obstetrics and Gynecology 2012
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3521405/


Guillain-Barre syndrome after influenza vaccine administration: two adult cases

“We describe two adult cases of neurologic complications occurring after the administration of the influenza vaccine. The first case described is a 68 year-old man who experienced paresthesias of the upper and lower extremities two weeks after vaccination, and the second case was a 64 year-old female who exhibited paraplegia eighteen days after vaccination.” Asociacion Medica de Puerto Rico 2010
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20939203/


Guillain-Barre syndrome occurring after rabies vaccination.

“A variety of events are associated with the onset of Guillain-Barre syndrome, including vaccinations and vaccines. These are the swine influenza vaccine, oral poliovirus vaccine and rabies vaccine. Rabies is a uniformly fatal disease. It is preventable if World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for post exposure treatment (PET) are followed. These include local treatment of wound, passive immunization with rabies immunoglobulins and administration of a efficacious vaccine. Cell culture vaccines are highly immunogenic with fewer side effects, but are costly. For that reason neurotissue vaccines are still widely used in Pakistan, although they are less immunogenic with higher incidence of neuroparalytic complications. We report a case of Guillain-Barre syndrome secondary to sheep brain anti-rabies vaccine in a young boy, who presented with lower limb weakness with total recovery after treatment.” Pakistan Medical Association
http://jpma.org.pk/full_article_text.php?article_id=601


H2N2 live attenuated influenza vaccine is safe and immunogenic for healthy adult volunteers.

“It was shed by 78.6% and 74.1% volunteers after the first and second dose, respectively, most probably due to the human origin of the virus.” Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 2015
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25831405/


Hyperpotentiation by Synthetic Double-Stranded RKA of Antibody Responses to Influenza Virus Vaccine in Adjuvant 65 (33983)

“The adjuvant preparation consisted of a water-in-peanut oil emulsion of the aque- ous vaccine employing mannide monooleate(Arlacel A) as emulsifier and aluminum mo- nostearate as stabilizer.” SAGE Journal 1969
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.3181/00379727-131-33983?journalCode=ebma


Increase of immune response by administration of metabolizable vegetable oil emulsions

“The present study describes the conditions under which a stable water in oil emulsion can be produced by using metabolizable peanut oil with arlacel. When mycobacteria are added, a potent emulsified oil adjuvant is obtained which increases the immune response to BSA and to influenza vaccine.” comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l’académie des sciences 1975
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/811378/


Inflammation-related effects of adjuvant influenza A vaccination on platelet activation and cardiac autonomic function

Together with an inflammatory reaction, influenza A vaccine induced platelet activation and sympathovagal imbalance towards adrenergic predominance. Significant correlations were found between CRP levels and HRV parameters, suggesting a pathophysiological link between inflammation and cardiac autonomic regulation. The vaccine-related platelet activation and cardiac autonomic dysfunction may transiently increase the risk of cardiovascular events.” Journal of Internal Medicine 2011
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20964738


Influenza Vaccination in the First Trimester of Pregnancy and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder (2017)

JAMA Pediatrics Patient Page 2018

http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/article-abstract/2617988


Influenza vaccine-induced CNS demyelination in a 50-year-old male.

FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Acute post-vaccination CNS demyelinating disorder.” American Journal of Case Reports 2014
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25175754/


Influenza: marketing vaccine by marketing disease

Promotion of influenza vaccines is one of the most visible and aggressive public health policies today.” TheBMJ 2013
http://www.bmj.com/content/346/bmj.f3037


Interstitial Pneumonia Associated with the Influenza Vaccine: A Report of Two Cases.

We encountered two cases of interstitial pneumonia that developed after vaccination during the 2014-2015 influenza season. Overall, nine cases, including the two presented here, have been recorded in PubMed and the Cochrane library; eight patients were treated with corticosteroids, and all nine survived, suggesting a good prognosis. Interstitial pneumonia is rare; however, we found an increase in its incidence after 2009.” Internal Medicine Journal 2007
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28090052/


Ischaemic stroke and influenza A H1N1 vaccination: a case report.

“We report a 75-year-old male patient who suffered posterior circulation ischaemia after influenza A/H1N1 vaccination. Vaccination provokes a variable magnitude of inflammatory and immunological response that modifies the risk for ischaemic stroke. Whereas a causal relation between vaccination and ischaemic stroke is still unsettled, an inflammatory/immunological response after vaccination may trigger thrombosis superimposing a pre-existing prothrombotic state. Careful monitoring is strongly suggested for individuals who received H1N1 vaccine, especially those with high ischaemic stroke risk.” Archives of Medical Science 2011
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22291779/


Knowledge and attitudes towards influenza vaccination of health care workers in emergency services

Annual vaccination rates among French health care workers (HCWs) are in decline even in Emergency Services to which patients at highest risk of influenza complications are admitted, and in which HCWs have the greatest risk of exposure to influenza from patients.” Vaccine 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27919630/


The manufacturing process should remain the focus for severe febrile reactions in children administered an Australian inactivated influenza vaccine during 2010

“Influenza vaccine safety is an ongoing issue.” influenza other respiratory viruses 2016
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26258888


Neurological and autoimmune disorders after vaccination against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) with a monovalent adjuvanted vaccine: population based cohort study in Stockholm, Sweden.

“Relative risks were significantly increased for Bell’s palsy, paraesthesia, and inflammatory bowel disease after vaccination, predominantly in the early phase of the vaccination campaign.” BMJ 2011
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21994316


Optic neuritis after influenza vaccination

METHODS: Case report. In a 59-year-old woman with bilateral optic neuritis, neuro-ophthalmologic examination, magnetic resonance imaging, fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test, antinuclear antibodies, and complete blood cell count and chemistry were performed.” American Journal of Ophthalmology 1997
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/9372734/


A Patient with Kawasaki Disease Following Influenza Vaccinations.

No abstract available The Pediatric Infectious Disease 2015 Journalhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26376188/


Possible Triggering Effect of Influenza Vaccination on Psoriasis

Here, we report the findings from 43 patients suffering from psoriasis (clinical phenotypes as mixed guttate/plaque lesions, palmoplantar or scalp psoriasis) whose diseases had been triggered after influenza vaccination applied in the 2009-2010 season.” Immunologic Research 2015
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26380315


Post-vaccination encephalomyelitis: literature review and illustrative case.

“Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that is usually considered a monophasic disease. ADEM forms one of several categories of primary inflammatory demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system including multiple sclerosis, optic neuropathy, acute transverse myelitis, and neuromyelitis optica (Devic’s disease). (…)
Post-vaccination ADEM has been associated with several vaccines such as rabies, diphtheria-tetanus-polio, smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, Japanese B encephalitis, pertussis, influenza, hepatitis B, and the Hog vaccine. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 2008
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18976924/


Potential risk of repeated nasal vaccination that induces allergic reaction with mucosal IgE and airway eosinophilic infiltration in cynomolgus macaques infected with H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

“On the other hand, eosinophil clusters were observed in the lungs of vaccinated macaques. Although Vac-3-specific IgE antibody and IL-13 levels were decreased after infection compared to those before infection and no anaphylaxis in vaccinated macaques was detected after challenge infection, our results suggest that we have to pay attention to potential allergic responses at repeated nasal vaccination, especially in people who have an airway allergy.” Vaccine 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28109707


Psychiatric comorbidity and cognitive profile in children with narcolepsy with or without association to the H1N1 influenza vaccination

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: In the post-H1N1 vaccination (PHV) narcolepsy group (n = 31), 43% of patients had psychiatric comorbidity, 29% had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) inattentive type, 20% had major depression, 10% had general anxiety disorder, 7% had oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), 3% had pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (i.e., atypical autism), and 3% had eating disorder not otherwise specified (anorectic type). In the non-post-H1N1 vaccination (nPHV) narcolepsy group, one of seven patients had ADHD, inattentive type and ODD.” Sleep 2015
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25325473/


Recurrence of Panic Attacks after Influenza Vaccination: Two Case Reports

“We present two cases of panic disorder patients whose symptoms were aggravated by the influenza vaccination. We assumed that dysregulation of T-lymphocytes in panic disorder patients could have a role in activating various kinds of cytokines and chemokines, which then can lead to panic attack aggravation.” Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience 2016
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5083943/
Full article https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27776395/


Recurrent encephalitis following annual influenza vaccine. Case report

“ We report the case of a male patient that presented two episodes of acute encephalitis in consecutive years, 16 and 20 days after his annual influenza vaccine shot, respectively.” Revista Chilena Infectología 2016
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27315001/


Recurrent Guillain-Barré syndrome following influenza vaccine.

“Two patients recovered from an attack of Guillain-Barré syndrome and then had a second attack of this disease, with a shorter latent period, following monovalent influenza vaccination. These cases suggest that an attack of Guillain-Barré syndrome may result in greater risk of future episodes of the syndrome in conjunction with exposure to influenza or other vaccinations.” Neurology 1978
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/566873/


Recurrent Immune Thrombocytopenia After Influenza Vaccination: A Case Report

“We report a child with 3 occurrences of ITP, each within 1 week of receiving the influenza trivalent inactivated vaccine.” Pediatrics 2016
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27940665/


Response to influenza vaccine in adjuvant 65-4.

“A comparison was made of the antibody response and subjective reactions to zonally-purified influenza vaccine in aqueous suspension and in peanut oil adjuvant 65-4.” The Journal of Hygiene 1975
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1054729/


Reversible blindness in optic neuritis associated with influenza vaccination.

“A patient is reported in whom bilateral optic neuritis developed following an influenza vaccination. From complete blindness (absence of light perception) in one eye, the patient’s vision returned to normal following steroid treatment.”  Annals of Ophthalmology 1979
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/453752/


Review of accidents caused by incomplete inactivation of viruses.

Note: There is some speculation that this may be occurring with the influenza vaccine as well. More research is needed. Developments in biological standardization 1993
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8174792/


Rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure triggered by the seasonal flu vaccination in a patient taking simvastatin

A man in his 70s presented with bilateral, painful legs and feeling generally unwell following the seasonal flu vaccination. The patient had a background of B cell lymphoma in partial remission.” BMJ Case Reports 2010 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22778082


Risk of narcolepsy in children and young people receiving AS03 adjuvanted pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza vaccine: retrospective analysis

“The increased risk of narcolepsy after vaccination with ASO3 adjuvanted pandemic A/H1N1 2009 vaccine indicates a causal association, consistent with findings from Finland.” BMJ 2013
http://www.bmj.com/content/346/bmj.f794


Severe manifestations of autoimmune syndrome induced by adjuvants (Shoenfeld’s syndrome).

“From 2011 to 2016, we identified 4479 ASIA cases, of them 305 fulfilled arbitrary criteria of severe ASIA including our case presentation and 11 deaths. The majority of severe ASIA cases were related to HPV vaccine, silicone, influenza vaccine and mineral oil injections. The interval from exposition to severe manifestation was from 2 days to 23 years. (1) This is the first study that analyzes all cases published on ASIA with severe manifestations. (2) The current HPV vaccine is both effective and generally safe. However, it should be noted that severe autoimmune side effects have been reported in several studies. Severe ASIA may be observed after influenza vaccines, and other vaccines. (3) Efforts should be made to discover the connection between adjuvants, autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases, because there is an increase in cases severe and life-threatening of ASIA.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27412294


Shedding of Ann Arbor strain live attenuated influenza vaccine virus in children 6-59 months of age

BACKGROUND: A trivalent, Ann Arbor strain, live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is approved for use in children 24 months of age and older in a number of countries. The incidence, duration, and other parameters of viral shedding after vaccination with LAIV have not been fully described in children ≤ 5 year.” Vaccine 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21513761/


Shoenfeld’s syndrome after pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccination

“In the current study, the authors reported the first Brazilian case of a woman who developed ASIA, which was characterized by arthralgia, changes in inflammatory markers, and chronic fatigue, after the pandemic anti-influenza A/H1N1 vaccine without causing any other rheumatic disease, and it had a positive outcome.” Acta Reumatológica Portuguesa 2011
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21483283/


Simultaneous development of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with H1N1 09 influenza vaccination.

“A 36-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of urinary retention and muscle weakness affecting all 4 limbs after receiving a H1N1 09 influenza vaccination. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated multiple lesions in his brain and spinal cord. Furthermore, nerve conduction study showed acute sensorimotor neuropathy, and anti-GM2 antibodies were detected in his serum.” Internal Medicine Journal 2012
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22728497/


Skepticism toward Emerging Infectious Diseases and Influenza Vaccination Intentions in Nurses. 2017

“Nurses generally show low compliance with vaccination recommendations.” Journal of Health Communication 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28375808/


Subacute thyroiditis (de Quervain’s) due to influenza A: presenting as fever of unknown origin (FUO).

“Influenza immunization or infection may cause subacute thyroiditis.” Heart & Lung 2013
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22819125


Subacute thyroiditis and dyserythropoesis after influenza vaccination suggesting immune dysregulation

We describe a case of subacute thyroiditis and dyserythropoesis occurring shortly after administration of an influenza vaccine in a 55-year-old man with history of diabetes and psoriasis, family history of autoimmunity without clinical evidence of acute viral infection prior to the onset of symptoms.” Boletín de la Asociación Médica de Puerto Rico 2011
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22111471/


Subacute thyroiditis following influenza vaccine (Vaxigrip) in a young female


This report details a case of SAT {Subacute thyroiditis} possibly associated with influenza vaccine (Vaxigrip) in a young female. The diagnosis, therapeutic management and outcome are discussed. The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences 2006
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16793568


Subacute thyroiditis following seasonal influenza vaccination

This case shows SAT as a rare condition following vaccination.. Thus, SAT {subacute thyroiditis} should be considered as a possible outcome following influenza vaccination and flu-like syndrome.” Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26809709


Subdeltoid/subacromial bursitis associated with influenza vaccination

A 76-year-old male presented with subacromial/subdeltoid bursitis following influenza vaccine administration into the left deltoid muscle. This shoulder injury related to vaccine administration (SIRVA) could have been prevented by the use of a safe, evidence based protocol for the intramuscular injection of the deltoid muscle.” Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 2014
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24284281


Surveillance of adverse events after the first trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine produced in mammalian cell culture (Flucelvax(®)) reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), United States, 2013-2015.

“Among 309 reports with an AE documented, 19 (6.1%) were serious and the most common categories were 152 (49.2%) general disorders and administration site conditions (mostly injection site and systemic reactions) and 73 (23.6%) immune system disorders with two reports of anaphylaxis. Four reports of GBS were submitted. Disproportional reporting was identified for ‘drug administered to patient of inappropriate age.” Vaccine 2015
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26518405


Temporal Association of Certain Neuropsychiatric Disorders Following Vaccination of Children and Adolescents: A Pilot Case-Control Study

“This pilot epidemiologic analysis implies that the onset of some neuropsychiatric disorders may be temporally related to prior vaccinations in a subset of individuals.” Frontiers in Psychiatry 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5244035/


Ten-Year Follow-Up Study for Safety of Adjuvant 65 Influenza Vaccine in Man (37469)

“The earlier adjuvant 65 influenza vaccine consist- ed of a water-in-oil emulsion of influenza vi- rus vaccine in peanut oil employing Arlacel A (mannide monooleate) as emulsifier and aluminum monostearate as stabilizer.” SAGE Journal 1975
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.3181/00379727-143-37469?journalCode=ebma


The total influenza vaccine failure of 1947 revisited: major intrasubtypic antigenic change can explain failure of vaccine in a post-World War II epidemic

The post-World War II epidemic of 1947 is notable for the total failure of a vaccine previously effective in the 1943-44 and 1944-45 seasons.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 2002
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/12136133


Two cases of exudative retina detachment and uveitis following H1N1 influenza vaccination

“Uveitis was a rare adverse event of vaccination. We met two cases of acute uveitis with exudative retinal detachment following vaccination of H1N1 influenza.” Chinese Medical Journal 2011
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22340253/


Vaccines without thiomersal: why so necessary, why so long coming?

“ The potential toxicity in children seems to be of much more concern to them than the hidden sensitising properties of thiomersal. In The Netherlands, unlike many other countries, the exposure to thiomersal from pharmaceutical sources has already been reduced. Replacement of thiomersal in all products should have a high priority in all countries.” Drugs 2011
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/11368282/


What, in Fact, Is the Evidence That Vaccinating Healthcare Workers against Seasonal Influenza Protects Their Patients? A Critical Review

The present paper examined each of the arguments in favor of HCW influenza vaccination and showed that they are not supported by existing literature. The evidence base supporting vaccination is unsound and prejudiced.” International Journal of Family Medicine 2012
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3502850/

 

And here’s another good study using a true placebo and a 9 month follow up showing that flu shot not only doesn’t work, it makes kids more likely to get sick.

This study followed kids for nine months after they were randomly assigned to receive the fl
u vaccine or a placebo. The results showed that kids who received the flu vaccine were MORE likely to get sick during the next 9 months (with non-influenza respiratory illnesses). 

Interestingly, the study found higher flu antibody levels in the kids who received the vaccine, but “no statistically significant difference in the risk of confirmed seasonal influenza infection between recipients of TIV or placebo.” This means that the flu shot raised antibody levels but was not shown to actually protect kids against flu infection. And at the same time, the flu shot INCREASED the kids’ risk of non-flu respiratory illnesses. 

The study provides some hypotheses for why this may be the case. 

Interestingly, they didn’t look at any illnesses reported in the first 14 days after vaccination, which is the most likely time period for people to report feeling ill after a flu vaccine. If they had included those 14 days, the results would likely have looked even worse for the flu shot.


Interstitial Pneumonia Associated with the Influenza Vaccine: A Report of Two Cases. Internal Medicine 2017

“We encountered two cases of interstitial pneumonia that developed after vaccination during the 2014-2015 influenza season. Overall, nine cases, including the two presented here, have been recorded in PubMed and the Cochrane library. Interstitial pneumonia is rare; however, we found an increase in its incidence after 2009.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5337467/?fbclid=IwAR3fSHDbfyTegy1_Vo1U2l6JoesHxr4uxBTDEOvLrTbnHrBInWE5gAR7zFY



http://m.cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/54/12/1778.full

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