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Bacillus Calmette-Guérin reactivation as a sign of incomplete Kawasaki disease.

“An early and specific clinical sign, not included in the classical diagnosis criteria, but that can be very useful in the diagnosis of KD, is the reaction at the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) inoculation site. We describe a case of a 4-month-old boy, fully immunised, whose BCG scar reactivation led to the diagnosis of IKD. This case-report emphasises the importance of BCG site reactivation in establishing a diagnosis of IKD that clinicians should be aware of, especially in countries where BCG vaccination is still part of the immunisation schedule. BMJ 2016 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27033285/


BCG and Kawasaki disease in Mexico and Japan. (2017)

“The BCG reaction in the inoculation site may represent the most useful sign in KD.” Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28281896/


BCG reactivation: a rare but specific sign of Kawasaki disease

No abstract available Presse Médicale 1998
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/9767910/


BCG site inflammation: a useful diagnostic sign in incomplete Kawasaki disease.

No abstract available Paediatr Child Health 2008
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18928475/


Bull’s eye dermatoscopy pattern at bacillus Calmette-Guérin inoculation site correlates with systemic involvements in patients with Kawasaki disease

“Notably, three patients from group A had a significantly dilated coronary artery despite i.v. immunoglobulin injection. We concluded that the bull’s eye dermatoscopy sign is not only a useful diagnostic clue but also a severity biomarker in patients with Kawasaki disease.” The Journal of Dermatology 2016
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26935002/


A case of Kawasaki disease with reaction at a DPT vaccination scar site.

Ceylon Medical Journal 2003
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/12971215/


Diagnostic approach and current treatment options in childhood vasculitis.

“Reaction at the site of administration of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine may be observed as commonly as cervical lymphadenopathy in Kawasaki disease and may be used as a valuable finding in suspicious cases.” Türk Pediatri Arşivi 2015
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26884688/


The first case of Kawasaki disease in a 20-month old baby following immunization with rotavirus vaccine and hepatitis A vaccine in China: A case report.

“Herein, we describe a 20-month-old child who developed Kawasaki disease after receiving her second dose of Lanzhou lamb rotavirus vaccine (LLR) and her first dose of freeze-dried live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine.” Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 2015
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26158590/


Kawasaki disease characterized by erythema and induration at the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin and purified protein derivative inoculation sites.

No abstract available The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 1987
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/3615073/


Kawasaki disease in an infant following immunisation with hepatitis B vaccine.

“The known association between hepatitis B and vasculitis has been reported in rare cases in adults after hepatitis B vaccination. We here describe a 35-day-old infant who developed Kawasaki disease 1 day after receiving his second dose of hepatitis B vaccine. Although extremely rare, this possible side effect should be noted and further investigated.” Clinical Rheumatology 2003
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/14677029/


A Patient with Kawasaki Disease Following Influenza Vaccinations.

No abstract available The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2015
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26376188/


Reactivation of the scar of BCG vaccination in Kawasaki’s disease: clinical case and literature review

“Kawasaki disease is an acute febrile multisystemic vasculitis affecting children that can affect the coronary arteries. Routine BCG vaccination in Mexico leads to a 99% coverage in infants younger than 1 year. We present a case of Kawasaki disease with skin lesions at the site of BCG. Clinicians should be aware of this clinical manifestation that could help diagnose atypical or incomplete cases of the disease.” Revista Alergia México 2006
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16884033/


RotaTeq vaccine adverse events and policy considerations.

“RESULTS: From February 3, 2006 through July 31, 2007, a total of 160 (of the 165 reported) intussusception and 11 (of the 16 reported) Kawasaki disease adverse event reports were identified when RotaTeq was administered or co-administered with other vaccines. Time-trend analyses showed that there were significant increases in the total number of intussusception and Kawasaki disease adverse events entered into VAERS in comparison to previous years.

CONCLUSIONS: These observations, coupled with limited rotavirus disease burden, cost-effectiveness, and potential contact viral transmission concerns, raise serious questions regarding the use of RotaTeq in the US. Healthcare providers should diligently report adverse events following RotaTeq vaccination to VAERS, and those who have experienced a vaccine-associated adverse event should be made aware that they may be eligible for compensation from the no-fault National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (NVICP).” Medical Science Monitor 2008
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18301365/


[Studies on the correlation among viability of BCG vaccine, vaccinal lesion and tuberculin allergy induced by vaccination in humans. Report I. On postvaccination tuberculin reaction].

No abstract available  Kekkaku 1959
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/14428145/


Two infants with tuberculid associated with Kawasaki disease.

“The adverse events of BCG vaccination, including local reactions, lymphadenitis, osteomyelitis, tuberculid, and disseminated infection, have been reported. Two infants presented erythema at the inoculation site of BCG after the resolution of Kawasaki disease (KD). They received BCG vaccination 1 week and 6 weeks before the KD onset, respectively. Intravenous immunoglobulin improved the KD activity, however the skin rash of BCG inoculation site extended to the face and extremities days 24 and 10 after the KD onset, respectively. Both bacteriological study and interferon-γ release assay were negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. These patients were diagnosed as having tuberculid after KD.” Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 2016
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27435523/


An ulcerated lesion at the BCG vaccination site during the course of Kawasaki disease.

“We describe a bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) granuloma that occurred during the course of Kawasaki disease. A 12-month-old male infant with Kawasaki disease had an erythematous indurated plaque with prominent necrotic ulceration at the BCG vaccination site on the left upper arm. Histologic study showed a granulomatous reaction consisting of epithelioid histiocytes, lymphoid cells, and Langhans-type giant cells. No evidence of mycobacterial infection was obtained. The lesion healed completely within 2 weeks without administration of antituberculous agents. We believe that the granulomatous reaction occurred as a result of hypersensitivity to proteins in the BCG vaccine, which appeared after the onset of Kawasaki disease.” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 1997
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/9270532/


Yellow fever vaccination and Kawasaki disease.

No abstract available  Pediatr Infect Disease Journal 2009
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19859023/

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