Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Formaldehyde: A Systematic Review

The mostly retrospective human studies provided evidence of an association of maternal exposure with adverse reproductive and developmental effects. Further assessment of this association by meta-analysis revealed an increased risk of spontaneous abortion.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3203331


Birth defects among infants born to women who received anthrax vaccine in pregnancy.

“In response to bioterrorism threats, anthrax vaccine has been used by the US military and considered for civilian use. Concerns exist about the potential for adverse reproductive health effects among vaccine recipients.” American Journal of Epidemiology 2008
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18599489/


Comparison of VAERS fetal-loss reports during three consecutive influenza seasons: was there a synergistic fetal toxicity associated with the two-vaccine 2009/2010 season?

“The aim of this study was to compare the number of inactivated-influenza vaccine-related spontaneous abortion and stillbirth (SB) reports in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database during three consecutive flu seasons beginning 2008/2009 and assess the relative fetal death reports associated with the two-vaccine 2009/2010 season.” Human & Experimental Toxicology 2013
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23023030/


Despite awareness of recommendations, why do health care workers not immunize pregnant women?

“Studies indicate uncertainty surrounding vaccination safety and efficacy for pregnant women, causing a central problem for health authorities. In this study, approximately 26% of participants do not recommend the tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis and influenza vaccines to their patients, although being aware of the health ministry recommendations.” American Journal of Infection Control 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28063725/


Elective termination of pregnancy after vaccination reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS): 1990-2006.

“Generally, live-virus vaccines are contraindicated for pregnant women because of the theoretical risk of transmission of the vaccine virus to the fetus.” Vaccine 2008https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18406499/


Fetal damage after accidental polio vaccination of an immune mother.

“Irreparable damage to the anterior horn cells of the cervical and thoracic cord was found in a 20-week-old fetus whose mother was immune to poliomyelitis before conceiving but who was inadvertently given oral polio vaccine at 18 weeks gestation.” The Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 1984
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/6747944/


Guillain-Barré Syndrome after H1N1 Shot in Pregnancy: Maternal and Fetal Care in the Third Trimester-Case Report.

“We presented a case of a 36-year-old pregnant woman that was immunized to H1N1 in the last trimester; 10 days later she developed shoulder and lumbar spine’s pain, limbs weakness and facial paralysis with unfavorable clinical evolution and was submitted to intensive therapy care. We described clinical and obstetrical approach, pointing out peculiarities involved in this pathology in pregnancy.” Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology 2012
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3521405/


Identifying birth defects in automated data sources in the Vaccine Safety Datalink. 2017

“Cardiac defects were most common (65.4 per 10 000 live births), with one-fourth classified as severe, requiring emergent intervention.” Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28054412/


Influenza Vaccination in the First Trimester of Pregnancy and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder (2017)

“The JAMA Pediatrics article by Zerbo et al1 reported a statistically significant association between the administration of the maternal influenza vaccine in the first trimester of pregnancy and the incidence of autism spectrum disorder. The authors stated that the analysis adjusted for covariates yielded a P value of .01 when applying a Cox proportional hazards regression model to the data.” JAMA 2017
http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/article-abstract/2617988


Major Birth Defects after Vaccination Reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 1990 to 2014.

(2017)

“We identified 50 reports of major birth defects; in 28 reports, the vaccine was given during the first trimester; 25 were reports with single vaccines administered.” Birth Defects Research 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28398711/


Optic neuritis in pregnancy after Tdap vaccination: Report of two cases. (2017)

“Two pregnant women developed one-eye blurring vision within three weeks after Tdap vaccination. Neurophtalmologic and MR examination confirmed an unilateral optic neuritis without evidence of underlying disease. Both patients had a full recovery, one after intravenous metilprednisolone. This is the first report of optic neuritis related with Tdap vaccination in pregnancy.” Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28719871/


Persistent fetal rubella vaccine virus infection following inadvertent vaccination during early pregnancy.

“Whereas in 5 cases the vaccine virus was not transmitted vertically, in 1 case vaccination led to the development of persistent fetal infection with prolonged virus shedding for more than 8 months. Sequence analysis carried out on isolates from amniotic fluid, from cord blood leukocytes as well as from infantile urine confirmed an infection by the vaccine strain.” Journal of Medical Virology 2000
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/10745249/


A prospective study of thimerosal-containing Rho(D)-immune globulin administration as a risk factor for autistic disorders.

This study evaluated the relationship between prenatal mercury exposure from thimerosal (49.55% mercury by weight)-containing Rho(D)-immune globulins (TCRs) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs).” The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine 2007
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17674242


Surveillance of Adverse Events After Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in Pregnant Women and Their Infants in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, July 2010-May 2016.

“INTRODUCTION: Routine immunization of pregnant women with seasonal inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs) is recom


mended in all trimesters of pregnancy. A review of the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) during 1990-2009 did not find any unexpected patterns of pregnancy complications or fetal outcomes after administration of IIV or live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs).” Drug Safety 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27988883/


Vaccines without thiomersal: why so necessary, why so long coming?

“The inorganic mercurial thiomersal (merthiolate) has been used as an effective preservative in numerous medical and non-medical products since the early 1930s. Both the potential toxicity of thiomersal and sensitisation to thiomersal in relation to the application of thiomersal-containing vaccines and immunoglobulins, especially in children, have been debated in the literature.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/11368282/


Yellow fever vaccination during pregnancy and spontaneous abortion: a case-control study.

“CONCLUSION: This study, although small and with low power, provides some evidence that women vaccinated with YF vaccine during early pregnancy have an increased risk of having spontaneous abortion. Based on these findings a sensible recommendation should be to avoid YF vaccination of pregnant women unless their risk of acquiring YF outweighs the risk of vaccine-related abortion.” Tropical Medicine & International Health 1998
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/9484965/


Association Between Prenatal Exposure to Metals and Neonatal Morbidity

The CP ratio was higher (1) in subjects with Al, (2) in mothers to newborns diagnosed as small-for-gestational age (p value = .052), (3) neonates that weighed less (p value = .079), and (4) in women who experienced repeated abortions (p value = .049). Our findings suggest the possibility of metal-induced oxidative stress.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15287394.2014.932313


Effects of frequent ultrasound during pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial

Frequent exposure to ultrasound may have influenced fetal growth.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8105165/


Prenatal exposure to ultrasound waves impacts neuronal migration in mice

Our analysis of over 335 animals reveals that, when exposed to USW (ultrasound waves) for a total of 30 min or longer during the period of their migration, a small but statistically significant number of neurons fail to acquire their proper position and remain scattered within inappropriate cortical layers and/or in the subjacent white matter. The magnitude of dispersion of labeled neurons was variable but systematically increased with duration of exposure to USW.
http://www.pnas.org/content/103/34/12903.full


Association Between Influenza Infection and Vaccination During Pregnancy and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder

There was a suggestion of increased risk of autism spectrum disorders among children whose mothers received an influenza vaccination during their first trimester.
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/article-abstract/2587559


Comparison of VAERS fetal-loss reports during three consecutive influenza seasons Human & Experimental Toxicology, 2013

4000% increase in miscarriage data from VAERS.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3888271/


Despite awareness of recommendations, why do health care workers not immunize pregnant women?

“Studies indicate uncertainty surrounding vaccination safety and efficacy for pregnant women, causing a central problem for health authorities. In this study, approximately 26% of participants do not recommend the tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis and influenza vaccines to their patients, although being aware of the health ministry recommendations.” American Journal of Infection Control 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28063725/


Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis after tetanus vaccination of a pregnant woman in Senegal.

“Although neurological complications have been described after tetanus vaccinations, they are rare. The authors report a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in a 28-year-old pregnant woman at a gestational age of 10 weeks, admitted 15 days after a tetanus vaccination, with spastic tetraplegia and sphincter disturbances.” Medecine Et Sante Tropicales 2012
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22868743


Adverse event reports after tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccines in pregnant women.

“The most frequent pregnancy-specific AE was spontaneous abortion in 22 (16.7%) reports.”
American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 2012
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22727350


Are toxic biometals destroying your children’s future?

“Cadmium, arsenic, lead, and mercury have been linked to autism, attention deficit disorder, mental retardation and death of children. Mercury in thimerosal found in many vaccines and flu shots contributes significantly to these problems. Decomposition of the thimerosal can produce more toxic compounds, either methylethylmercury or diethylmercury, in the body. These compounds have a toxicity level similar to dimethylmercury. Within the human body, a mitochondrial disorder may release the more toxic form of mercury internally. Young children and pregnant women must minimize internal exposure to the vaccines and flu shots containing mercury.” BioMetals 2009
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19205900


Neurobehavioral toxic effects of perinatal oral exposure to aluminum on the developmental motor reflexes, learning, memory and brain neurotransmitters of mice offspring

“Neurobehavioral toxic effects of perinatal oral exposure to aluminum on the developmental motor reflexes, learning, memory and brain neurotransmitters of mice offspring.”

Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Formaldehyde: A Systematic Review

The mostly retrospective human studies provided evidence of an association of maternal exposure with adverse reproductive and developmental effects. Further assessment of this association by meta-analysis revealed an increased risk of spontaneous abortion.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3203331


Birth defects among infants born to women who received anthrax vaccine in pregnancy.

“In response to bioterrorism threats, anthrax vaccine has been used by the US military and considered for civilian use. Concerns exist about the potential for adverse reproductive health effects among vaccine recipients.” American Journal of Epidemiology 2008
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18599489/


Comparison of VAERS fetal-loss reports during three consecutive influenza seasons: was there a synergistic fetal toxicity associated with the two-vaccine 2009/2010 season?

“The aim of this study was to compare the number of inactivated-influenza vaccine-related spontaneous abortion and stillbirth (SB) reports in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database during three consecutive flu seasons beginning 2008/2009 and assess the relative fetal death reports associated with the two-vaccine 2009/2010 season.” Human & Experimental Toxicology 2013
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23023030/


Elective termination of pregnancy after vaccination reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS): 1990-2006.

“Generally, live-virus vaccines are contraindicated for pregnant women because of the theoretical risk of transmission of the vaccine virus to the fetus.” Vaccine 2008 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18406499/


Fetal damage after accidental polio vaccination of an immune mother.

Irreparable damage to the anterior horn cells of the cervical and thoracic cord was found in a 20-week-old fetus whose mother was immune to poliomyelitis before conceiving but who was inadvertently given oral polio vaccine at 18 weeks gestation.The Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 1984
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/6747944/


Guillain-Barré Syndrome after H1N1 Shot in Pregnancy: Maternal and Fetal Care in the Third Trimester-Case Report.

“We presented a case of a 36-year-old pregnant woman that was immunized to H1N1 in the last trimester; 10 days later she developed shoulder and lumbar spine’s pain, limbs weakness and facial paralysis with unfavorable clinical evolution and was submitted to intensive therapy care. We described clinical and obstetrical approach, pointing out peculiarities involved in this pathology in pregnancy.” Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology 2012
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3521405/


Identifying birth defects in automated data sources in the Vaccine Safety Datalink. 2017

“Cardiac defects were most common (65.4 per 10 000 live births), with one-fourth classified as severe, requiring emergent intervention.” Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28054412/


Influenza Vaccination in the First Trimester of Pregnancy and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder (2017)

“The JAMA Pediatrics article by Zerbo et al1 reported a statistically significant association between the administration of the maternal influenza vaccine in the first trimester of pregnancy and the incidence of autism spectrum disorder. The authors stated that the analysis adjusted for covariates yielded a P value of .01 when applying a Cox proportional hazards regression model to the data.” JAMA 2017
http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/article-abstract/2617988


Major Birth Defects after Vaccination Reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 1990 to 2014. (2017)

“We identified 50 reports of major birth defects; in 28 reports, the vaccine was given during the first trimester; 25 were reports with single vaccines administered.” Birth Defects Research 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28398711/


Optic neuritis in pregnancy after Tdap vaccination: Report of two cases. (2017)

“Two pregnant women developed one-eye blurring vision within three weeks after Tdap vaccination. Neurophtalmologic and MR examination confirmed an unilateral optic neuritis without evidence of underlying disease. Both patients had a full recovery, one after intravenous metilprednisolone. This is the first report of optic neuritis related with Tdap vaccination in pregnancy.” Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28719871/


Persistent fetal rubella vaccine virus infection following inadvertent vaccination during early pregnancy.

“Whereas in 5 cases the vaccine virus was not transmitted vertically, in 1 case vaccination led to the development of persistent fetal infection with prolonged virus shedding for more than 8 months. Sequence analysis carried out on isolates from amniotic fluid, from cord blood leukocytes as well as from infantile urine confirmed an infection by the vaccine strain.” Journal of Medical Virology 2000
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/10745249/


A prospective study of thimerosal-containing Rho(D)-immune globulin administration as a risk factor for autistic disorders.

This study evaluated the relationship between prenatal mercury exposure from thimerosal (49.55% mercury by weight)-containing Rho(D)-immune globulins (TCRs) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs).” The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine 2007
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17674242


Surveillance of Adverse Events After Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in Pregnant Women and Their Infants in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, July 2010-May 2016.

INTRODUCTION: Routine immunization of pregnant women with seasonal inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs) is recommended in all trimesters of pregnancy. A review of the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) during 1990-2009 did not find any unexpected patterns of pregnancy complications or fetal outcomes after administration of IIV or live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs).Drug Safety 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27988883/


Vaccines without thiomersal: why so necessary, why so long coming?

“The inorganic mercurial thiomersal (merthiolate) has been used as an effective preservative in numerous medical and non-medical products since the early 1930s. Both the potential toxicity of thiomersal and sensitisation to thiomersal in relation to the application of thiomersal-containing vaccines and immunoglobulins, especially in children, have been debated in the literature.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/11368282/


Yellow fever vaccination during pregnancy and spontaneous abortion: a case-control study.

“CONCLUSION: This study, although small and with low power, provides some evidence that women vaccinated with YF vaccine during early pregnancy have an increased risk of having spontaneous abortion. Based on these findings a sensible recommendation should be to avoid YF vaccination of pregnant women unless their risk of acquiring YF outweighs the risk of vaccine-related abortion.” Tropical Medicine & International Health 1998
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/9484965/


Association Between Prenatal Exposure to Metals and Neonatal Morbidity

The CP ratio was higher (1) in subjects with Al, (2) in mothers to newborns diagnosed as small-for-gestational age (p value = .052), (3) neonates that weighed less (p value = .079), and (4) in women who experienced repeated abortions (p value = .049). Our findings suggest the possibility of metal-induced oxidative stress.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15287394.2014.932313


Effects of frequent ultrasound during pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial

Frequent exposure to ultrasound may have influenced fetal growth.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8105165/


Prenatal exposure to ultrasound waves impacts neuronal migration in mice

Our analysis of over 335 animals reveals that, when exposed to USW (ultrasound waves) for a total of 30 min or longer during the period of their migration, a small but statistically significant number of neurons fail to acquire their proper position and remain scattered within inappropriate cortical layers and/or in the subjacent white matter. The magnitude of dispersion of labeled neurons was variable but systematically increased with duration of exposure to USW.
http://www.pnas.org/content/103/34/12903.full

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