Case report: probable transmission of vaccine strain of yellow fever virus to an infant via breast milk.
The 17D yellow fever vaccine is a live-virus vaccine that has been in use since the 1940s. The incidence of encephalitis after yellow fever vaccination among young infants is much higher than among children older than nine months of age. Until recently, avoidance of vaccination by breastfeeding women who have received yellow fever vaccine had been based on theoretical grounds only. We report the probable transmission of vaccine strain of yellow fever virus from a mother to her infant through breastfeeding. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2001
Complications of pertussis immunization (author transl).
“16 cases of neurological disease and/or death shortly after pertussis immunization are reported. Eight patients had convulsions, six with ensuing permanent defects. Severe polymyositis was observed in one case. Five infants died 12 h to 4 days after vaccination: two after acute encephalopathy and three in the form of a sudden unexpected death (SID).”
Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde 1077
Demyelinating disease and vaccination of the human papillomavirus.
“CONCLUSIONS: Have been described seizures, autoimmune disorders such as Guillain-Barre syndrome, transverse myelitis, or motor neuron disease, probably adverse effects following immunization by HPV vaccine. So we suggest that vaccine may trigger an immunological mechanism leading to demyelinating events, perhaps in predisposed young.”
Revue Neurologique 2011
Newborn immune activation may have long-term negative impact on brain function
temporary immune system activation shortly after birth produced two main findings in the adult mice. First, immune-activated mice spent more time in slow-wave sleep, a sleep phase often associated with systemic inflammation. Second, the mice also showed dramatic increases in brief (lasting 2-3 seconds) bouts of abnormal brain wave activity. These events had the hallmark characteristics of spike-wave discharges (SWDs), a type of epilepsy-like brain activity that is not accompanied by full-body seizures.
The Risk of Seizures After Receipt of Whole-Cell Pertussis or Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccine Epilepsy Curr. 2002 Jan
There are significantly elevated risks of febrile seizures on the day of receipt of DTP vaccine and 8 to 14 days after the receipt of MMR vaccine.
Vaccination Triggers, Rather Than Causes, Seizures Epilepsy Curr. 2015 Nov-Dec
Febrile seizures represent a serious adverse event following measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination.
Febrile Seizure Risk After Vaccination in Children 6 to 23 Months Pediatrics, June 2016.
The administration of IIV3 [flu vaccine] on the same day as either PCV (pneumococcal conjugate vaccine) or a DTaP-containing vaccine was associated with a greater risk of febrile seizures.
Identification of seizures among adults and children following influenza vaccination using health insurance claims data. Vaccine. 2013 Dec 5
Seizure events using had a high level of accuracy in the emergency department setting in young children and older adults.
Systematic review of fever, febrile convulsions and serious adverse events following administration of inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines in children. Euro Surveill. 2015 Jun 18
Increased febrile convulsions occurred after administration of influenza [flu] vaccine.
Risk of febrile seizure after measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Vaccine. 2015 Jul
MMRV vaccine dose in children aged 10-24 months was associated with an elevated risk of seizure or febrile seizure.
Vaccination and occurrence of seizures in SCN1A mutation-positive patients: a multicenter Italian study..Pediatr Neurol. 2014 Mar
Vaccination-related seizures occurred in 25% of patients with SCN1A mutation and 18% of patients without the mutation.
Acute encephalopathy followed by permanent brain injury or death associated with further attenuated measles vaccines: a review of claims submitted to the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Pediatrics. 1998 Mar
Suggests a causal relationship between measles vaccine and encephalopathy.
Febrile seizures following measles and varicella vaccines in young children in Australia. Vaccine. 2015 Mar
Detected the expected increased FS [febrile seizures] risk post MMR1 vaccine at 12 months.
Breakthrough: why MMR vaccine can give children febrile seizures November 11, 2014
MMR vaccine which protects against measles, mumps and rubella, can give children febrile seizures.
Common variants associated with general and MMR vaccine-related febrile seizures. Nat Genet. 2014 Dec
Most Vaccination-Onset Epilepsy Has Genetic, Structural Cause September 24, 2014
Dravet syndrome with SCN1B gene mutation: A rare entity. (2017)
“We present the case of a 7-month old male child who started having recurrent febrile, and thereafter, afebrile seizures, following administration of a vaccination at 3 months.” Neurology India 2017
Effect of age on the incidence of aseptic meningitis following immunization with monovalent mumps vaccine.
“A total of 10 aseptic meningitis, 551 salivary gland swelling, 844 fevers, 669 vomiting, 757 headaches, and 29 seizure cases were identified.” Vaccine 2015
Infant meningoencephalitis caused by yellow fever vaccine virus transmitted via breastmilk.
“In 2009, the first case was confirmed of meningoencephalitis caused by the yellow fever vaccine virus transmitted via breastmilk. We describe a second case in which the vaccine virus was possibly the etiologic agent of meningoencephalitis.” Jornal de Pediatria 2011
The manufacturing process should remain the focus for severe febrile reactions in children administered an Australian inactivated influenza vaccine during 2010.
“Influenza vaccine safety is an ongoing issue. In 2010, inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs), Fluvax(®) and Fluvax Junior(®) manufactured by CSL Biotherapies (‘CSL’), Parkville, Australia, were associated with a marked increase in febrile seizures (FS) in children <5 years old.” Influenza Other Respiratory Viruses 2016 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26258888
Measles-mumps-rubella-varicella combination vaccine and the risk of febrile seizures
“CONCLUSIONS: Among 12- to 23-month-olds who received their first dose of measles-containing vaccine, fever and seizure were elevated 7 to 10 days after vaccination. Vaccination with MMRV results in 1 additional febrile seizure for every 2300 doses given instead of separate MMR + varicella vaccines. Providers who recommend MMRV should communicate to parents that it increases the risk of fever and seizure over that already associated with measles-containing vaccines.” Pediatrics 2010
Neurologic manifestations following pertussis vaccination
“Twenty cases of acute neurological complications occuring within 7 days of pertussis immunization are reported. Convulsions were present in every case and status epilepticus was observed in five infants. In only 4 cases were neurological or epileptic sequelae lacking. The clustering of neurological complications in the 24 hours following immunization is not consistent with the hypothesis of a mere temporal coincidence. However, the mechanism and incidence of post-immunization encephalopathies remains obscure and epidemiological studies are in order.” Archives Francaises De Pediatrie 1975
Nonfebrile Seizures after Mumps, Measles, Rubella, and Varicella-Zoster Virus Combination Vaccination with Detection of Measles Virus RNA in Serum, Throat, and Urine
We report the case of a child presenting with nonfebrile seizures 6 and 13 days after the first vaccination with a measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (MMRV) combination vaccine. Measles virus RNA was detected in the patient’s serum, throat, and urine. Genotyping revealed the Schwarz vaccine virus strain.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 2013
Predictive value of seizure ICD-9 codes for vaccine safety research.
“Review of medical records confirmed whether the visit represented a true acute seizure event. 3233 visits for seizures were identified; 1024 were randomly selected for medical record review and 859 (84%) had records available.” Vaccine 2015
Recurrent seizures after diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine immunization. Onset less than 24 hours after vaccination.
“Twenty-two patients with recurrent seizures that started less than 24 hours after immunization with diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTP) vaccine were retrospectively studied. The initial seizure generally occurred after one of the first three DTP vaccine immunizations, and followed that immunization by less than 12 hours. Two of the 22 patients were siblings.” THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF DISEASES OF CHILDREN 1984
The risk of seizures after receipt of whole-cell pertussis or measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine.
“BACKGROUND: The administration of the diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and whole-cell pertussis (DTP) vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine has been associated with adverse neurologic events, including seizures. We studied the relation between these vaccinations and the risk of a first seizure, subsequent seizures, and neurodevelopmental disability in children.” The New England Journal of Medicine 2001
Status epilepticus and lymphocytic pneumonitis following hepatitis B vaccination.
“The case reported refers to a patient who developed status epilepticus in the day of her third dose of hepatitis B vaccination and we review the literature on this subject. A 12 year-old girl, without a relevant previous history, taking no drugs, developed a seizure attack followed by unconsciousness, and eventually died after three days of her third dose of hepatitis B (HB) vaccination.” European Journal of Internal Medicine 2008
Syncope and seizures following human papillomavirus vaccination: a retrospective case series.
“OBJECTIVE: To quantify and characterise the reports of syncope and seizures following quadrivalent (4v) human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination.” The Medical Journal of Australia 2011
Transmission of yellow fever vaccine virus through breast-feeding – Brazil, 2009
“In April, 2009, the state health department of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, was notified by the Cachoeira do Sul municipal health department of a case of meningoencephalitis requiring hospitalization in an infant whose mother recently had received yellow fever vaccine during a postpartum visit.” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2010
Use of the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register for vaccine safety data
“An increase in febrile convulsions 6-11 days post-MMR vaccination was demonstrated which equates to a vaccine-attributable risk of 1 convulsion per 6753 vaccines. This study confirms the known association between MMR vaccination and febrile convulsions and in doing so demonstrates the feasibility of using the ACIR for data linkage and vaccine safety surveillance.”
Vaccine-related adverse events in Cuban children, 1999-2008.
“The DTwP vaccine exhibited the highest rate of adverse events. Common minor events were: fever (17,538), reactions at injection site (4470) and systemic side effects (2422). Rare events (by WHO definition) reported were: persistent crying (2666), hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes (3), encephalopathy (2) and febrile seizures (112). Severe events included: anaphylaxis (2), respiratory distress (1), multiple organ failure (1), sudden death (1), vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (2), toxic shock syndrome (3), and sepsis (1). The 10 deaths and 3 cases of disability were investigated by an expert commission, which concluded that 8 of the 13 severe events were vaccination-related.” Vaccine 2010