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Aborted Human Fetal DNA Studies

Characteristics and viral propagation properties of a new human diploid cell line, Walvax-2, and its suitability as a candidate cell substrate for vaccine production.

“We have developed a new HDCS, Walvax-2, which we derived from the lung tissue of a 3-month-old fetus.” Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 2015
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25803132/


Epidemiologic and Molecular Relationship Between Vaccine Manufacture and Autism Spectrum Disorder Prevalence.

“Vaccines manufactured in human fetal cell lines contain unacceptably high levels of fetal DNA fragment contaminants. The human genome naturally contains regions that are susceptible to double strand break formation and DNA insertional mutagenesis.” Issues in Law & Medicine 2015
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26103708/


Fetal tissue research: an ongoing story of professionally responsible success.

“Research using fetal tissue has allowed for development of vaccines for numerous diseases including polio, rubella, and measles.”

“These scientific and medical advances are dependent on the use of fetal tissue from aborted fetuses. While the practice of induced abortion despite societal benefit may be theologically objectionable to some, these practices are professionally responsible. Federal regulations exist to discourage patients from being influenced by the societal benefit of fetal research in arriving at the decision to terminate as well as to prevent researchers from influencing a patient’s decision.” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 2015
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26432465


[Vaccines, biotechnology and their connection with induced abortion].

Diploid cells (WI-38, MRC-5) vaccines have their origin in induced abortions. Among these vaccines we fi nd the following: rubella, measles, mumps, rabies, polio, smallpox, hepatitis A, chickenpox, and herpes zoster. Nowadays, other abortion tainted vaccines cultivated on transformed cells (293, PER.C6) are in the pipeline: flu, Respiratory Syncytial and parainfluenza viruses, HIV, West Nile virus, Ebola, Marburg and Lassa, hepatitis B and C, foot and mouth disease, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, tuberculosis, anthrax, plague, tetanus and malariaCuadernos De Bioetica 2008
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18611078/


Vaccines originating in abortion.

“Many commonly used vaccines have their origin in cell lines that were originally developed from an aborted fetus.” Ethics & Medics
http://www.immunize.org/concerns/furton.pdf

Allergy Studies

Anaphylactic reactions to measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in three children with allergies to hen’s egg and cow’s milk. 

We present three cases of anaphylaxis that we encountered after MMR vaccination in children sensitized to hen’s egg and cow’s milk.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21244488/


Anaphylaxis after zoster vaccine: Implicating alpha-gal allergy as a possible mechanism.

“Gelatin and other nonprimate mammal–derived products are common excipient ingredients in several vaccines, and it has been postulated that patients with alpha-gal allergy might react to these vaccines.” The journal of allergy and clinical immunology
http://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(16)31455-5/fulltext


A clinical analysis of gelatin allergy and determination of its causal relationship to the previous administration of gelatin-containing acellular pertussis vaccine combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. 

“Most anaphylactic reactions and some urticarial reactions to gelatin-containing measles, mumps, and rubella monovalent vaccines are associated with IgE-mediated gelatin allergy. DTaP immunization histories suggest that the gelatin-containing DT” Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21244488/

ALS Studies

Aluminum hydroxide injections lead to motor deficits and motor neuron degeneration

Morin stain detected the presence of aluminum in the cytoplasm of motor neurons with some neurons also testing positive for the presence of hyper-phosphorylated tau protein, a pathological hallmark of various neurological diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal dementia. A second series of experiments was conducted on mice injected with six doses of aluminum hydroxide. Behavioural analyses in these mice revealed significant impairments in a number of motor functions as well as diminished spatial memory capacity. The demonstrated neurotoxicity of aluminum hydroxide and its relative ubiquity as an adjuvant suggest that greater scrutiny by the scientific community is warranted. Inorganic Biochemistry 2009
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19740540

Aluminum Studies

Administration of aluminium to neonatal mice in vaccine relevant amounts is associated with adverse long term neurological outcomes. 

A correlation between increasing ASD rates and aluminium (Al) adjuvants in common use in paediatric vaccines in several Western countries. The correlation between ASD rate and Al adjuvant amounts appears to be dose-dependent. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 2013
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23932735


Aluminum adjuvant linked to gulf war illness induces motor neuron death in mice. 

Young, male colony CD-1 mice were injected with the adjuvants at doses equivalent to those given to US military service personnel. Behavioral testing showed motor deficits in the aluminum treatment group that expressed as a progressive decrease in strength. Significant cognitive deficits were observed in the combined aluminum and squalene group. Neuromolecular Medicine, 2007
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17114826


Aluminum and Alzheimer’s disease: after a century of controversy, is there a plausible link?

Experimental evidence has repeatedly demonstrated that chronic Aluminum (Al) intoxication reproduces neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimers’ Disease (AD). Misconceptions about Al bioavailability may have misled scientists regarding the significance of Al in the pathogenesis of AD. The hypothesis that Al significantly contributes to AD is built upon very solid experimental evidence and should not be dismissed. Immediate steps should be taken to lessen human exposure to Al, which may be the single most aggravating and avoidable factor related to AD. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 2011
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21157018

Anemia Studies

Acute Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia Following DTP Vaccination: Report of a Fatal Case and Review of the Literature

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/000992280104000610


Aplastic anemia following varicella vaccine

“We describe an immunocompetent child who developed transient severe aplastic anemia concomitant with a typical clinical and laboratory-proven chickenpox syndrome 3 weeks after immunization.” The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2009
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19633522/


A case of Evans’ syndrome following influenza vaccine.

CONCLUSION: Influenza vaccine is one of the most commonly used vaccines worldwide, with millions of people being vaccinated annually. Despite its wide use, only sparse information has been published concerning any hematological effects of this vaccine. The rarity of such effects supports the safety of using this vaccine.” Journal of Emergency Medicine 2013
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22796025/


Drug-induced anaemia: a decade review of reporting to the Italian Pharmacovigilance data-base.

“…13 for flu vaccine for the occurrence of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia.” International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy 2015
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25515616/


Vaccine-associated immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in the dog

“This study provides the first clinical evidence for a temporal relationship of vaccine-associated IMHA in the dog.” Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 1996
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8884713/

Alzheimer Studies

Increased blood mercury levels in patients with Alzheimer’s disease

These results demonstrate elevated blood levels of mercury in AD, and they suggest that this increase of mercury levels is associated with high CSF levels of A beta, whereas tau levels were unrelated.Neural Transmission 1989 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/9588761


The neurotoxicity of environmental aluminum is still an issue

“Aluminum is a strong candidate for consideration as a subtle promoter of events typically associated with brain aging.” Neurotoxicology 2010
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2946821


Prolonged exposure to low levels of aluminum leads to changes associated with brain aging and neurodegeneration

“Epidemiological studies suggest that aluminum may not be as innocuous as was previously thought and that aluminum may actively promote the onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease.” Toxicology 2014 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24189189


Vaccination to Alzheimer Disease. Is it a Promising Tool or a Blind Way?

“Unfortunately, the promising vaccines like the AN 1792 were halted during clinical trials because of adverse effects like meningoencephalitis.” Current Medicinal Chemistry 2016
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27087245

Arthritis Studies

Adjuvants- and vaccines-induced autoimmunity: animal models

“In some cases, adjuvants may trigger generalized autoimmune response, resulting in multiple auto-antibodies, but sometimes they can reproduce human autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, autoimmune thyroiditis and antiphospholipid syndrome and may provide insights about the potential adverse effects of adjuvants.” Immunology Research 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27417999


Autoimmune/auto-inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) after quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination in Colombians: a call for personalised medicine

“This was a case study in which 3 patients with autoimmune/auto-inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) after quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination (HPV) were evaluated and described. Our results highlight the risk of developing ASIA after HPV vaccination and may serve to increase the awareness of such a complication. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 2015
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25962455


Autoimmune/Inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants and Thyroid Autoimmunity

“More studies and cases have reported the correlation of the exposure to various adjuvants with diverse autoimmune diseases.  Frontiers in Endocrinology 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5256113/

Asthma Studies

Delay in diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus vaccination is associated with a reduced risk of childhood asthma.

“Among 11, 531 children who received at least 4 doses of DPT, the risk of asthma was reduced to ½ in children whose first dose of DPT was delayed by more than 2 months. The likelihood of asthma in children with delays in all 3 doses was 0.39 (95% CI, 0.18-0.86).” Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2007
http://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(07)02379-2/fulltext


Effects of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis or tetanus vaccination on allergies and allergy-related respiratory symptoms among children and adolescents in the United States.

“The odds of having a history of asthma was twice as great among vaccinated subjects than among unvaccinated subjects. DTP or tetanus vaccination appears to increase the risk of allergies and related respiratory symptoms in children and adolescents.”
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 2000
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/10714532


Is infant immunization a risk factor for childhood asthma or allergy?

The Christchurch Health and Development Study comprises 1,265 children born in 1977. The 23 children who received no diphtheria/pertussis/tetanus (DPT) and polio immunizations had no recorded asthma episodes or consultations for asthma or other allergic illness before age 10 years; in the immunized children, 23.1% had asthma episodes, 22.5% asthma consultations, and 30.0% consultations for other allergic illness. Similar differences were observed at ages 5 and 16 years. These findings do not appear to be due to differential use of health services (although this possibility cannot be excluded) or con-founding by ethnicity, socioeconomic status, parental atopy, or parental smoking. Epidemiology 1997
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/9345669/


The relationship between vaccine refusal and self-report of atopic disease in children

“Parents who refuse vaccinations reported less asthma and allergies in their unvaccinated children. Although this relationship was independent of measured confounders, it could be due to differences in other unmeasured lifestyle factors or systematic bias. Further research is needed to verify these results and investigate which exposures are driving the associations between vaccination refusal and allergic disease. The known benefits of vaccination currently outweigh the unproved risk of allergic disease.” Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2004
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091674905000266

Attention Deficit Disorder 

Are toxic biometals destroying your children’s future?

“Cadmium, arsenic, lead, and mercury have been linked to autism, attention deficit disorder, mental retardation and death of children. Mercury in thimerosal found in many vaccines and flu shots contributes significantly to these problems. Decomposition of the thimerosal can produce more toxic compounds, either methylethylmercury or diethylmercury, in the body. These compounds have a toxicity level similar to dimethylmercury. Within the human body, a mitochondrial disorder may release the more toxic form of mercury internally. Young children and pregnant women must minimize internal exposure to the vaccines and flu shots containing mercury.” BioMetals 2009
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19205900/


Methodological issues and evidence of malfeasance in research purporting to show thimerosal in vaccines is safe.

“There are over 165 studies that have focused on Thimerosal, an organic-mercury (Hg) based compound, used as a preservative in many childhood vaccines, and found it to be harmful. Of these, 16 were conducted to specifically examine the effects of Thimerosal on human infants or children with reported outcomes of death; acrodynia; poisoning; allergic reaction; malformations; auto-immune reaction; Well’s syndrome; developmental delay; and neurodevelopmental disorders, including tics, speech delay, language delay, attention deficit disorder, and autism. In contrast, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that Thimerosal is safe and there is “no relationship between [T]himerosal[-]containing vaccines and autism rates in children.” This is puzzling because, in a study conducted directly by CDC epidemiologists, a 7.6-fold increased risk of autism from exposure to Thimerosal during infancy was found.” BioMed Research International 2014
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24995277


Neurodevelopmental disorders, maternal Rh-negativity, and Rho(D) immune globulins: a multi-center assessment.

“RESULTS: There were significant and comparable increases in maternal Rh-negativity among children with NDs {neurodevelopmental disorders} (Clinic: A=24.2%), autism spectrum disorders (Clinic: A=28.3%, B=25.3%), and attention-deficit-disorder/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder (Clinic: A=26.3%) observed at both clinics in comparison to both control groups (Clinic: A=12.1%, B=13.9%) employed. Children with NDs born post-2001 had a maternal Rh-negativity frequency (13.6%) similar to controls.
CONCLUSION: This study associates TCR exposure with some NDs in children.” Neuro Endocrinology Letters 2008
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18404135/


Thimerosal exposure in infants and neurodevelopmental disorders: an assessment of computerized medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink.

“Consistent significantly increased rate ratios were observed for autism, autism spectrum disorders, tics, attention deficit disorder, and emotional disturbances with Hg exposure from TCVs.” Neurological Sciences 2008
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18482737/


A two-phased population epidemiological study of the safety of thimerosal-containing vaccines: a follow-up analysis.

“Phase one showed significantly increased risks for autism, speech disorders, mental retardation, personality disorders, and thinking abnormalities reported to VAERS following thimerosal-containing DTaP vaccines in comparison to thimerosal-free DTaP vaccines. Phase two showed significant associations between cumulative exposures to thimerosal and the following types of NDs: unspecified developmental delay, tics, attention deficit disorder (ADD), language delay, speech delay, and neurodevelopmental delays in general.” Medical Science Monitor 2005
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15795695/

Autism & Vaccine Studies

A two-phase study evaluating the relationship between Thimerosal-containing vaccine administration and the risk for an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in the United States.

The present study provides new evidence supporting an association between childhood vaccines and the risk of an ASD diagnosis. Translational Neurodegeneration, 2013
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3878266/


Do aluminum vaccine adjuvants contribute to the rising prevalence of autism?

The increase in exposure to aluminum adjuvants significantly correlates with the increase in ASD prevalence. Elsevier, 2011
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0162013411002212


What is regressive autism and why does it occur? Is it the consequence of multi-systemic dysfunction affecting the elimination of heavy metals and the ability to regulate neural temperature?

There is a compelling argument that the occurrence of regressive autism is attributable to genetic and chromosomal abnormalities, arising from the overuse of vaccines, which subsequently affects the stability and function of the autonomic nervous system…Heavy Metals and Mercury in particular, affects the function of the Central Nervous System. North American Journal of Medical Sciences, 2009
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3364648/

Autoimmune Issues & Vaccine Studies

Evidence that Food Proteins in Vaccines Cause the Development of Food Allergies and Its Implications for Vaccine Policy.

Vaccines contain adjuvants such as pertussis toxins and aluminum compounds that also bias towards allergy. Adjuvants also increase the immunogenicity of injected food proteins. This combination of atopic children and food protein injection along with adjuvants, contributes to millions developing life- threatening food allergies.  Journal of Developing Drugs, 2015
https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/evidence-that-food-proteins-in-vaccines-cause-the-development-of-foodallergies-and-its-implications-for-vaccine-policy-2329-6631-1000137.pdf


Autoimmunity following hepatitis B vaccine as part of the spectrum of ‘Autoimmune (Auto-inflammatory) Syndrome induced by Adjuvants’ (ASIA): Analysis of 93 cases.

Risk factors such as history of autoimmune diseases and the appearance of adverse event(s) during immunization may serve to predict the risk of post-immunization diseases.  NCBI, February 2012
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22235045


Chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia following immunization with the hepatitis B vaccine: another angle of the ‘autoimmune (auto-inflammatory) syndrome induced by adjuvants’ (ASIA).

This study suggests that in some cases fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue can be temporally related to immunization, as part of ASIA syndrome. The appearance of adverse event during immunization, the presence of autoimmune susceptibility and higher titers of autoantibodies all can be suggested as risk factors.  NCBI, 2014
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25427994/

Bell’s Palsy

Bell’s palsy as a possible complication of hepatitis B vaccination in a child.

Bell’s Palsy is the sudden onset of unilateral temporary paralysis of facial muscles resulting from seventh cranial nerve dysfunction. Presented here is a two-year old female patient with right peripheral facial palsy following hepatitis B vaccination.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2928079/


Neurological and autoimmune disorders after vaccination against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) with a monovalent adjuvanted vaccine: population based cohort study in Stockholm, Sweden.

“Relative risks were significantly increased for Bell’s palsy, paraesthesia, and inflammatory bowel disease after vaccination, predominantly in the early phase of the vaccination campaign.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21994316


Safety of Quadrivalent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine in 11- to 21-Year-Olds.

Twenty-six prespecified events of interest (EOIs), including neurologic, rheumatologic, hematologic, endocrine, renal, pediatric, and pediatric infectious disease EOIs, were identified through electronic health records 1 year after vaccination. We observed a temporal association between occurrence of Bell’s palsy and receipt of MenACWY-CRM concomitantly with other vaccines.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28025240


Transient facial nerve paralysis (Bell’s palsy) following administration of hepatitis B recombinant vaccine: a case report.

Presented here is a 26-year-old female patient with right lower motor neurone facial palsy following hepatitis B vaccination.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24457866/

Cancer

Activation of metastatic potential in African green monkey kidney cell lines by prolonged in vitro culture.

“Their malignant tumor growth was further demonstrated around the 500 passage level when tumor metastases were detected in the lungs of four of the 14 inoculated rats. Vero cells induced such lung metastases in rats already at passage 227.” In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology 1985
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/4066602


Assessing the tumorigenic phenotype of VERO cells in adult and newborn nude mice.

“During tissue-culture passage, VERO cells can develop the capacity to form tumors.”
Biologicals 2008
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17933552


Association between SV40 and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

“Millions of people worldwide were inadvertently exposed to live simian virus 40 (SV40) between 1955 and 1963 through immunization with SV40-contaminated polio vaccines. Although the prevalence of SV40 infections in humans is not known, numerous studies suggest that SV40 is a pathogen resident in the human population today. SV40 is a potent DNA tumor virus that is known to induce primary brain cancers, bone cancers, mesotheliomas, and lymphomas in laboratory animals.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15202523/

Cardiovascular

Acute fulminant myocarditis after diphtheria, polio, and tetanus vaccination.

“We report an infant case of acute fulminant myocarditis which occurred after administration of a diphtheria, polio, and tetanus vaccination. Fever and dyspnea developed after the vaccination. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was used for intractable cardiogenic shock. The patient survived the extracorporeal support, but poor ventricular contractility recurred 2 months later and she died while waiting for heart transplantation.” Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals 2006
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17130313


Acute myopericarditis after multiple vaccinations in an adolescent: case report and review of the literature.

“We report a case of postvaccination acute myopericarditis in an adolescent. The patient presented with acute chest pain, diffuse ST-segment elevation, and elevated cardiac enzyme levels. Cardiac MRI was consistent with acute myocarditis. He recovered within a few days with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory treatment and remains clinically stable, with improvement of MRI findings at the 10-week follow-up. Postvaccination cases of myopericarditis reported in the pediatric literature are also reviewed.” Pediatrics 2007
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17515437


Adverse events following vaccination in premature infants.

CONCLUSION: Vaccine-related cardiorespiratory events are relatively common in preterm babies. Problems were much more common if vaccine is administered at or before 70 d. These babies should therefore be monitored postvaccination. Further prospective studies are needed to clarify whether delaying vaccination offers protection against these adverse events.” Acta Paediatrica 2001
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/11529542

Chickenpox Vaccine

Review of the United States universal varicella vaccination program: Herpes zoster incidence rates, cost-effectiveness, and vaccine efficacy based primarily on the Antelope Valley Varicella Active Surveillance Project data.

In the prelicensure era, 95% of adults experienced natural chickenpox (usually as children)-these cases were usually benign and resulted in long-term immunity. Varicella vaccination is less effective than the natural immunity that existed in prevaccine communities. Universal varicella vaccination has not proven to be cost-effective as increased HZ morbidity has disproportionately offset cost savings associated with reductions in varicella disease. Universal varicella vaccination has failed to provide long-term protection from VZV disease. Vaccine, 2013
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22659447

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Fibromyalgia, infection and vaccination: two more parts in the etiological puzzle.

“As the pathogenesis of fibromyalgia continues to raise debate, multiple putative triggers have been implicated. The current review summarizes the available data linking fibromyalgia to either infection or vaccination. Multiple infectious agents have been associated with the development of either full-blown fibromyalgia (e.g. hepatits C), or with symptom complexes extensively overlapping with that syndrome (e.g. chronic Lyme disease). The cases of Lyme disease, mycoplasma, hepatits C and HIV are detailed. Despite the described associations, no evidence is available demonstrating the utility of antibiotic or anti-viral treatment in the management of fibromyalgia. Possible mechanistic links between fibromyalgia and HIV are reviewed. Associations have been described between various vaccinations and symptom complexes including fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. The case of Gulf War syndrome, a functional multisystem entity sharing many clinical characteristics with fibromyalgia is discussed, with emphasis on the possibility of association with administration of multiple vaccinations during deployment in the Persian Gulf and the interaction with stress and trauma. Based on this example a model is proposed, wherein vaccinations function as co-triggers for the development of functional disorders including fibromyalgia, in conjunction with additional contributing factors.” Journal of Autoimmunity 2006
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17071055


Hepatitis B vaccination and associated oral manifestations: a non-systematic review of literature and case reports.

“After reviewing the literature, we observed that complications seen after Hepatitis B vaccination are sudden infant death syndrome, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, vasculititis optic neuritis, anaphylaxis, systemic lupus erytymatosus, lichen planus and neuro-muscular disorder.” Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research 2014
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25506472


Simian cytomegalovirus-related stealth virus isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with bipolar psychosis and acute encephalopathy.

“A cytopathic ‘stealth’ virus was cultured from the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with a bipolar psychotic disorder who developed a severe encephalopathy leading to a vegetative state. DNA sequencing of a polymerase chain reaction-amplified product from infected cultures has identified the virus as an African green monkey simian cytomegalovirus (SCMV)-related stealth virus. The virus is similar to the SCMV-related stealth virus isolated from a patient with chronic fatigue syndrome. The findings support the concepts that stealth viruses can account for a spectrum of dysfunctional brain diseases and that some of these viruses may have arisen from live polio viral vaccines.” Pathobiology 1996
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8888270

Death

Adverse events associated with childhood vaccines other than pertussis and rubella. Summary of a report from the Institute of Medicine.

“In September 1993, the Institute of Medicine released a report entitled Adverse Events Associated With Childhood Vaccines: Evidence Bearing on Causality. The report examined putative serious adverse consequences associated with administration of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids; measles, mumps, and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines; oral polio vaccine and inactivated polio vaccine; hepatitis B vaccines; and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines.”  JAMA 1994
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8182813


Adverse events following Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, 1990-2013.

“Includes 29 747 reports after Hib vaccines; 5179 (17%) were serious, including 896 reports of deaths. Median age was 6 months (range 0-1022 months). Sudden infant death syndrome was the stated cause of death in 384 (51%) of 749 death reports with autopsy/death certificate records.” Journal of Pediatrics 2015
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25598306


Adverse event reports after tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccines in pregnant women.

“The most frequent pregnancy-specific AE was spontaneous abortion in 22 (16.7%) reports.” Obstetrics Gynecology 2012
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22727350

Diabetes

Association between type 1 diabetes and Hib vaccine

The rise in diabetes, just one potential adverse effect, exceeds the benefit of the vaccine, which has been estimated to prevent seven deaths and 7-26 cases of severe disability per 100 000 children immunised
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1116914/


Clustering of cases of insulin dependent diabetes (IDDM) occurring three years after hemophilus influenza B (HiB) immunization support causal relationship between immunization and IDDM.

Immunization with pediatric vaccines increased the risk of insulin diabetes in NOD mice. Exposure to HiB immunization is associated with an increased risk of IDDM.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/12482192


Public should be told that vaccines may have long term adverse effects

At the conference we stated that the data on the vaccine support our published findings that immunisation starting after the age of 2 months is associated with an increased risk of diabetes.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1114674/

Ears

Epidemic of complicated mumps in previously vaccinated young adults in the South-West of France. 2014

RESULTS: Five cases of meningitis, 1 of orchitis, and 1 of unilateral hearing impairment were identified. Each of the 7 patients had been previously vaccinated with MMR, 4 had received 2 doses of this vaccine. Blood tests revealed high rates of IgG antibodies, usually considered as sufficient for immunological protection, and every patient had at least 1 positive RT-PCR test for mumps.Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses 2014
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25391635/


Live attenuated measles and mumps viral strain-containing vaccines and hearing loss: Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), United States, 1990–2003.

“As vaccines against measles and mumps contain live attenuated viral strains, it is biologically plausible that in some individuals HL could develop as a complication of vaccination against measles and/or mumps.” Vaccine 2008
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18255204/


Reports of sensorineural deafness after measles, mumps, and rubella immunisation.

“There have been nine reports of sensorineural hearing loss after measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) immunisation. In three cases the deafness was unrelated to MMR immunisation. In six cases the cause was unknown and MMR remained a possible aetiology. Any risk associated with attenuated viruses must be weighed against the risks of the natural diseases.” Archives of Disease in Childhood 1993
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8024302/

Eczema

Eczema vaccinatum resulting from the transmission of vaccinia virus from a smallpox vaccinee: an investigation of potential fomites in the home environment.

“On March 3, 2007, a 2-year-old boy was hospitalized with eczema vaccinatum. His two siblings, one with eczema, were subsequently removed from the home. Swabs of household items obtained on March 13th were analyzed for orthopoxvirus DNA signatures with real-time PCR. Virus culture was attempted on positive specimens. Eight of 25 household samples were positive by PCR for orthopoxvirus; of these, three yielded viable vaccinia virus in culture. Both siblings were found to have serologic evidence of orthopoxvirus exposure.” Vaccine 2009
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19027813


How Contagious Is Vaccinia?

“A report on vaccine-related deaths in the United States during the 1960s found that 12 of the 68 deaths occurred in unvaccinated persons exposed to recently vaccinated family members or friends, a finding that demonstrates the potential gravity of the problem. Numerous reports have described the spread of vaccinia virus within families. The majority are in- stances of single transmission, usually from a recently vaccinated child to an unvaccinated younger sibling.” The new England Journal & Medizine 2002
http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMra022500


Severe eczema vaccinatum in a household contact of a smallpox vaccinee.

“A 28-month-old child with refractory atopic dermatitis developed eczema vaccinatum after exposure to his father, a member of the US military who had recently received smallpox vaccine. The father had a history of inactive eczema but reportedly reacted normally to the vaccine. The child’s mother also developed contact vaccinia infection.” Clinical Infectious Diseases 2008
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18419490

Eyes

Ampiginous choroiditis following quadrivalent human papilloma virus vaccine

“A 17-year-old female was referred for new-onset vision loss in both eyes 3 weeks after being vaccinated with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine. Three weeks following vaccination, she developed painless vision loss in the left eye …”
http://bjo.bmj.com/content/94/1/137.long


Anterior uveitis and cataract after rubella vaccination: a case report of a 12-month-old girl.

Many reports associating uveitis after vaccination have been reported, including 2 cases after measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine. We report the case of a 12-month-old girl who developed a unilateral anterior uveitis with rubeosis and cataract 3 months after an MMR vaccination at 9 months of age. Aqueous humor analysis showed the presence of more rubella-specific immunoglobulin G in the affected eye than in the unaffected one. This is the second report showing an association between MMR vaccine and anterior uveitis and the first supported by the presence of intraocular rubella antibodies.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23999961/


Association of acute cerebellar ataxia and human papilloma virus vaccination: a case report.

We report the case of a patient who developed symptoms of acute cerebellar ataxia (ACA) after administration of the human papilloma virus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine. This patient developed symptoms of ACA, including nausea, vertigo, severe limb and truncal ataxia, and bilateral spontaneous continuous horizontal nystagmus with irregular rhythm, 12 days after administration of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine. This temporal association strongly suggests that ACA was induced by the vaccination.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23378179/

Fetal Death

Adverse event reports after tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccines in pregnant women.

“The most frequent pregnancy-specific AE was spontaneous abortion in 22 (16.7%) reports.” Obstetrics Gynecology 2012
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22727350


Comparison of VAERS fetal-loss reports during three consecutive influenza seasons: was there a synergistic fetal toxicity associated with the two-vaccine 2009/2010 season?

The aim of this study was to compare the number of inactivated-influenza vaccine-related spontaneous abortion and stillbirth (SB) reports in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database during three consecutive flu seasons beginning 2008/2009 and assess the relative fetal death reports associated with the two-vaccine 2009/2010 season.” Human & Experimental Toxicology 2013
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23023030


Elective termination of pregnancy after vaccination reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS): 1990-2006.

Generally, live-virus vaccines are contraindicated for pregnant women because of the theoretical risk of transmission of the vaccine virus to the fetus. Advisory groups recommend avoiding pregnancy in the immediate period after administration of such contraindicated vaccines (CVs) and stress benefit-to-risk evaluation for live or inactivated vaccines regarding pregnancy. Vaccine 2008
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18406499

Fibromyalgia

Chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia following immunization with the hepatitis B vaccine: another angle of the ‘autoimmune (auto-inflammatory) syndrome induced by adjuvants’ (ASIA).

The objectives of this study were to gather information regarding demographic and clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with either fibromyalgia (FM) or chronic fatigue (CFS) following hepatitis B vaccination (HBVv) and furthermore to apply the recently suggested criteria of autoimmune (auto-inflammatory) syndromes induced by adjuvants (ASIA), in the aim of identifying common characteristics that may suggest an association between fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue and HBV vaccination. Immunology Research 2014
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25427994


Etiology of fibromyalgia: the possible role of infection and vaccination.

“Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), a condition characterized by widespread pain and diffuse tenderness, is considered a multifactorial disorder. FMS is now recognized as one of the “central” pain syndromes. Environmental and genetic factors play a role in the pathogenesis of FMS. Various triggers including trauma and stress as well as infections, may precipitate the development of FMS. Certain infections including hepatitis C virus, HIV and Lyme disease have been temporally associated with the development of FMS. There is some evidence for the possible role of vaccinations in triggering the development of FMS and related syndromes, however this association remains to be established.” Autoimmun review 2008
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18706528


Fibromyalgia, infection and vaccination: two more parts in the etiological puzzle.

“Based on this example a model is proposed, wherein vaccinations function as co-triggers for the development of functional disorders including fibromyalgia, in conjunction with additional contributing factors.” Autoimmunity 2006
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17071055

Food Allergies

Anaphylactic reactions to measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in three children with allergies to hen’s egg and cow’s milk.

“CONCLUSION: Therefore, we recommend that all children not only those who were sensitized to foods should receive the MMR vaccination in a setting that is equipped to deal with anaphylactic reactions. As stated by WHO in immunization safety surveillance, ‘Each vaccinator must have an emergency kit with adrenaline, and be familiar with its dosage and administration’.” Acta Paediatrica 2011
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21244488


Anaphylaxis after zoster vaccine: Implicating alpha-gal allergy as a possible mechanism.

“Gelatin and other nonprimate mammal–derived products are common excipient ingredients in several vaccines, and it has been postulated that patients with alpha-gal allergy might react to these vaccines.” Allergy and clinical immunology 2017
http://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(16)31455-5/fulltext


Anaphylaxis to succinylated gelatin in a patient with a meat allergy: galactose-α(1, 3)-galactose (α-gal) as antigenic determinant.

Specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) antibodies towards the galactose-α(1,3)-galactose (α-gal) moieties may elicit life-threatening and fatal anaphylactic reactions. Patients sensitized to α-gal moieties from mammalian meat may also react towards mammalian gelatins and gelatin-containing drugs such as bovine gelatin-based colloid plasma substitute. The case of a 56 year old woman with a meat allergy who suffered anaphylaxis to succinylated gelatin is reported. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia 2011
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25439422

Gastrointestinal

Adverse events following Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, 1990-2013.

“Includes 29 747 reports after Hib vaccines; 5179 (17%) were serious, including 896 reports of deaths. Median age was 6 months (range 0-1022 months). Sudden infant death syndrome was the stated cause of death in 384 (51%) of 749 death reports with autopsy/death certificate records.”
Journal of Pediatrics 2015
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25598306


An analysis of rotavirus vaccine reports to the vaccine adverse event reporting system: more than intussusception alone?

“CONCLUSIONS: Intussusception and gastroenteritis were the most commonly reported outcomes; however, a substantial number of reports indicate signs and symptoms consistent with either illness, possibly suggestive of a spectrum of gastrointestinal illness(es) related to RRV-TV. Although VAERS data have recognized limitations such as underreporting (that may differ by vaccine) and are nearly always insufficient to prove causality between a vaccine and an adverse event, this safety profile of RRV-TV may aid better understanding of the pathophysiology of intussusception as well as development of future safer rotavirus vaccines.” Pediatrics  2004
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15060267


A case-control study of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine-associated autoimmune adverse events.

Previous case series of SAAEs and biological plausibility support the observed results. Additional studies should be conducted to further evaluate the potential biological mechanisms involved in HPV4 vaccine-associated SAAEs in animal model systems, and to examine the potential epidemiological relationship between HPV4 vaccine-associated SAAEs in other databases and populations.
Clinical Rheumatology 2015
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25535199

Guillain-Barre

Adverse effect versus quality control of the Fuenzalida-Palacios antirabies vaccine.

We evaluated the components of the Fuenzalida-Palacios antirabies vaccine, which is till used in most developing countries in human immunization for treatment and prophylaxis. This vaccine is prepared from newborn mouse brains at 1% concentration. Even though the vaccine is considered to have a low myelin content, it is not fully free of myelin or of other undesirable components that might trigger adverse effects after vaccination. The most severe effect is a post-vaccination neuroparalytic accident associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/10030074


[A case of Guillain-Barré syndrome following cholera vaccination (author’s transl)].

“A 45-year-old woman developed bilateral ascending flaccid paralysis after cholera vaccination, 15 days after the first and 1 day after the second injection. The clinical course resulted in nearly complete paralysis of the lower limbs, paresis of the upper limbs and partial involvement of the cranial nerves. There was only slight sensory loss. The CSF revealed no pleocytosis and a protein level of 206 mg/100 ml. Recovery began 2 weeks later and was almost complete after 2 months. Immunological investigations revealed no remarkable changes.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/50424/


[Demyelinating disease and vaccination of the human papillomavirus].

“We describe the cases of four young women that developed demyelinating disease after the vaccination of the HPV, with a rank of time between the administration of the dose and the development of the clinical of seven days to a month, with similar symptoms with the successive doses. We have described six episodes coinciding after the vaccination. Have been described seizures, autoimmune disorders such as Guillain-Barre syndrome, transverse myelitis, or motor neuron disease, probably adverse effects following immunization by HPV vaccine. So we suggest that vaccine may trigger an immunological mechanism leading to demyelinating events, perhaps in predisposed young.” Revue Neurologique 2011
http://jnnp.bmj.com/content/82/11/1296.long

Gulf War Syndrome

Aluminum adjuvant linked to Gulf War illness induces motor neuron death in mice.

“Aluminum-treated groups also showed significant motor neuron loss (35%) and increased numbers of astrocytes (350%) in the lumbar spinal cord. The findings suggest a possible role for the aluminum adjuvant in some neurological features associated with GWI and possibly an additional role for the combination of adjuvants.”  NeuroMolecular Medicine 2007
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17114826


Aluminum hydroxide injections lead to motor deficits and motor neuron degeneration.

“A second series of experiments was conducted on mice injected with six doses of aluminum hydroxide. Behavioural analyses in these mice revealed significant impairments in a number of motor functions as well as diminished spatial memory capacity. The demonstrated neurotoxicity of aluminum hydroxide and its relative ubiquity as an adjuvant suggest that greater scrutiny by the scientific community is warranted.” Inorganic Biochemistry 2009
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19740540


Antibodies to squalene in recipients of anthrax vaccine.

“These results suggest that the production of ASA {anti-squalene antibodies} in GWS {Gulf War Syndrome} patients is linked to the presence of squalene in certain lots of anthrax vaccine.”
Experimental and Molecular Pathology 2002
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/12127050

Hair Loss

Alopecia Areata After Vaccination: Recurrence with Rechallenge.

“Alopecia areata (AA) is the most common form of hair loss in children. We report the case of a child who had two episodes of AA after two different vaccines with complete hair regrowth between the episodes. This case supports the concept that vaccination might be a trigger for the development of AA in genetically predisposed children.” Pediatric Dermatology 2016
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27071855/


Hair loss after routine immunizations

“A total of 60 evaluable reports submitted since 1984 and coded for “alopecia” after immunizations included 16 with positive rechallenge (hair loss after vaccination on more than 1 occasion), 4 of which were definite and 12 possible or probable. Of the 60 cases, 46 had received hepatitis B vaccines. Both of the currently available recombinant products, as well as the former plasma-derived product, were represented. Females predominated in all age groups. The majority of patients recovered, but clinical features, such as intervals from vaccination until onset and the extent and reversibility of hair loss, varied widely. Nine patients reported previous medication allergy.” JAMA 1997
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/9326478/


Recombinant Human Hepatitis B Vaccine Initiating Alopecia Areata: Testing the Hypothesis Using the C3H/HeJ Mouse Model

“Untoward effects of human vaccines suggest that recombinant hepatitis B vaccine may induce alopecia areata (AA) in some patients. “
Veterinary Dermatology 2009
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2956183/

Hepatitus B Vaccine

Autoimmune hazards of hepatitis B vaccine.

This paper points out that information on the safety of hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) is biased as compared to classical requirements of evidence-based medicine (EBM), as exemplified by a documented selectivity in the presentation or even publication of available clinical or epidemiological data. Autoimmune Review, 2005
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15722255


Hepatitis B triple series vaccine and developmental disability in US children aged 19 years.

The odds of receiving EIS (special education services) were approximately nine times as great for vaccinated boys (n = 46) as for unvaccinated boys (n = 7), after adjustment for confounders. This study found statistically significant evidence to suggest that boys in United States who were vaccinated with the triple series Hepatitis B vaccine, during the time period in which vaccines were manufactured with thimerosal, were more susceptible to developmental disability than were unvaccinated boys. Journal Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, 2008
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02772240701806501


Hepatitis B vaccine induces apoptotic death in Hepa16 cells.

We conclude that exposure of Hepa1-6 cells to a low dose of adjuvanted hepatitis B vaccine leads to loss of mitochondrial integrity, apoptosis induction, and cell death, apoptosis effect was observed also in C2C12 mouse myoblast cell line after treated with low dose of vaccine. Apoptosis, 2012
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22249285

HIB Vaccine

Association between type 1 diabetes and Hib vaccine.

Study on the effect of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine on type 1 diabetes and found that the data supports a causal relation. Furthermore, the potential risk of the vaccine exceeds the potential benefit. British Medical Journal, 1999
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1116914/


A causal association between Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine and diabetes. Autoimmunity, 2003

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12911277


Adverse events associated with childhood vaccines other than pertussis and rubella. Summary of a report from the Institute of Medicine.

In September 1993, the Institute of Medicine released a report entitled Adverse Events Associated With Childhood Vaccines: Evidence Bearing on Causality. The report examined putative serious adverse consequences associated with administration of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids; measles, mumps, and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines; oral polio vaccine and inactivated polio vaccine; hepatitis B vaccines; and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines.” JAMA 1994
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8182813/

HPV Vaccine (Gardasil)

Adolescent Premature Ovarian Insufficiency Following Human Papillomavirus Vaccination. 

Idiopathic premature ovarian insufficiency following HPV vaccination. Journal Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Report, 2014
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4528880/


Adverse events following HPV vaccination, Alberta 2006–2014. 

Of the women who received HPV vaccine 958 were hospitalized and 19,351 had an emergency department visit within 42 days of immunization. Elsevier 2016
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264410X16002036


A case–control study of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine-associated autoimmune adverse events. 

It was observed that…arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis, alopecia, or CNS conditions were significantly more likely than controls to have received HPV vaccine. Clinical Rheumatology 2015
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4475239/

Immune System

Application of the immunological disease continuum to study autoimmune and other inflammatory events after vaccination.

Emerging data suggest that self-directed tissue inflammation occurs along a continuum from innate immune-driven diseases to adaptive immune-driven diseases.” Vaccine 2011
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21036134


Can influenza H1N1 vaccination lead to the membranous glomerulonephritis?

“So this case report is about a 56-year-old man, who developed membranous glomerulonephritis 23 days after the vaccination against Influenza A (H1N1) virus.”
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2012
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22771654


A case of Evans’ syndrome following influenza vaccine.

“CASE REPORT: A 50-year-old man with no prior medical history developed Evans’ syndrome 4 days after receiving influenza immunization. The patient improved following treatment with oral prednisone and intravenous immunoglobulin.” Emergency Medicine 2013
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22796025

Influenza Vaccine

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis After Influenza Vaccination: A Case Report Critical Care Nurse

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that has been associated with the influenza immunization [vaccination]. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis developed in a 42-year-old woman within three weeks of receiving the seasonal influenza [flu] vaccine.
http://m.ccn.aacnjournals.org/content/36/3/e1.full.pdf


Febrile Seizure Risk after Vaccination in Children One to Five Months of Age Pediatric Neurology

Vaccination in children aged three to five months was associated with a large relative risk of febrile seizure on the day of and the day after vaccination. [Febrile seizures can lead to permanent seizure disorders including epilepsy, see our page on seizures]
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28958404


Vaccine administration and the development of immune thrombocytopenic purpura in children Human Vaccines & Immunotherapies.

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an adverse event that can follow vaccine administration, and may limit vaccine use because little is known about which vaccines it may follow, its real incidence and severity, the risk of chronic disease, or the possibility of recurrences after new doses of the same vaccine.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=23324619

Japanese Encephalitis

A case of sudden death after Japanese encephalitis vaccination.

We report a case of sudden death in which a 10-year-old boy experienced cardiopulmonary arrest 5 min after receiving a Japanese encephalitis vaccination
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25819538/


Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease following vaccination against human papilloma virus infection and Japanese encephalitis.

We present a 14-year-old girl who suffered from fever and cervical lymph node swelling following simultaneous administration of human papilloma virus vaccine and Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22476507/


Sudden death after typhoid and Japanese encephalitis vaccination in a young male taking pseudoephedrine.

“The case of a 21-year-old male taking over-the-counter pseudoephedrine for weight loss who died suddenly during exercise shortly after inoculation with Japanese encephalitis and phenol-inactivated typhoid vaccines is presented. The patient collapsed in mild weather while exercising 75 minutes after his vaccinations.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/10050577

Kawasaki

Bacillus Calmette-Guérin reactivation as a sign of incomplete Kawasaki disease.

“An early and specific clinical sign, not included in the classical diagnosis criteria, but that can be very useful in the diagnosis of KD, is the reaction at the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) inoculation site. We describe a case of a 4-month-old boy, fully immunised, whose BCG scar reactivation led to the diagnosis of IKD. This case-report emphasises the importance of BCG site reactivation in establishing a diagnosis of IKD that clinicians should be aware of, especially in countries where BCG vaccination is still part of the immunisation schedule. BMJ 2016 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27033285/


BCG and Kawasaki disease in Mexico and Japan. (2017)

“The BCG reaction in the inoculation site may represent the most useful sign in KD.” Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28281896/


Bull’s eye dermatoscopy pattern at bacillus Calmette-Guérin inoculation site correlates with systemic involvements in patients with Kawasaki disease

“Notably, three patients from group A had a significantly dilated coronary artery despite i.v. immunoglobulin injection. We concluded that the bull’s eye dermatoscopy sign is not only a useful diagnostic clue but also a severity biomarker in patients with Kawasaki disease.” The Journal of Dermatology 2016
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26935002/

Kidney Issues

Acute renal failure after influenza vaccination: a case report.

“This is the fourth case report of acute renal failure after influenza vaccination in patients on statins therapy.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25916030/


Acute renal failure after TAB and cholera vaccination.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1597965/


Can influenza H1N1 vaccination lead to the membranous glomerulonephritis?

The close relationship between membranous glomerulonephritis and antigens is known, particularly in seconder forms which occur after viral infections and vaccinations. So this case report is about a 56-year-old man, who developed membranous glomerulonephritis 23 days after the vaccination against Influenza A (H1N1) virus.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22771654/

Lupus

Adjuvants- and vaccines-induced autoimmunity: animal models.

“In some cases, adjuvants may trigger generalized autoimmune response, resulting in multiple auto-antibodies, but sometimes they can reproduce human autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, autoimmune thyroiditis and antiphospholipid syndrome and may provide insights about the potential adverse effects of adjuvants.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27417999


Autoimmune/auto-inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) after quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination in Colombians: a call for personalised medicine.

“This was a case study in which 3 patients with autoimmune/auto-inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) after quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination (HPV) were evaluated and described. Diagnosis consisted of HLA-B27 enthesitis related arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematous, respectively. Our results highlight the risk of developing ASIA after HPV vaccination and may serve to increase the awareness of such a complication.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25962455/


Autoimmune/Inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants and Thyroid Autoimmunity.

Adjuvants are found in many vaccines and used mainly to increase the response to vaccination in the general population. Silicone has also been reported to be able to induce diverse immune reactions. Clinical cases and series of heterogeneous autoimmune conditions including systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis have been reported to be induced by several adjuvants.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5256113/

MMR Vaccine

Nonfebrile Seizures after Mumps, Measles, Rubella, and Varicella Zoster Virus Combination Vaccination with Detection of Measles Virus RNA in Serum, Throat, and Urine.

We report the case of a child presenting with nonfebrile seizures 6 and 13 days after the first vaccination with a measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (MMRV) combination vaccine. Clinical and Vaccine Immuniology, 2013
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3697452/


Two successive outbreaks of mumps in Nova Scotia among vaccinated adolescents and young adults.

The predominance in these outbreaks of infected people of university age not only highlights an environment with potential for increased transmission but also raises questions about the efficacy of the MMR vaccine. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 2006
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16940266


Waning of Maternal Antibodies Against Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella in Communities With Contrasting Vaccination Coverage.

Children of mothers vaccinated against measles and, possibly, rubella have lower concentrations of maternal antibodies and lose protection by maternal antibodies at an earlier age than children of mothers in communities that oppose vaccination. This increases the risk of disease transmission in highly vaccinated populations. Oxford Journals Medicine & Health The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2013
http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/04/29/infdis.jit143.full


Mumps vaccination coverage and vaccine effectiveness in a large outbreak among college students–Iowa, 2006. 

A large mumps outbreak occurred despite high two-dose vaccination coverage in a population most of whom had received the second dose >10 years before. Vaccine 2008
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18539365


Major measles epidemic in the region of Quebec despite a 99% vaccine coverage.

The vaccination coverage among cases was at least 84.5%. Vaccination coverage for the total population was 99.0%. Incomplete vaccination coverage is not a valid explanation for the Quebec City measles outbreak. Canadian Journal of Public Health. 1991
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1884314


Horizontal transmission of the Leningrad-3 live attenuated mumps vaccine virus

Here we describe symptomatic transmission of the Leningrad-3 mumps vaccine virus from healthy vaccinees to previously vaccinated contacts.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16266774

Multiple Sclerosis

CNS demyelination and quadrivalent HPV vaccination.

Although the target population for vaccination, young females, has an inherently high risk for MS, the temporal association with demyelinating events in these cases may be explained by the potent immuno-stimulatory properties of HPV virus-like particles which comprise the vaccine.
Multiple Sclerosis Journal 2009
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18805844


Demyelinating disease and polyvalent human papilloma virus vaccination

“Since its inception, the polyvalent vaccine against the human papilloma virus (HPV), Gardasil, has generated some controversies as a temporal relationship between the administrations of the vaccine and the development of a few autoimmune diseases, such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), multiple sclerosis (MS) and Guillain–Barre syndrome have been reported.1–3 We encountered two cases whose initial presentation of CNS demyelination followed in close time relationship the administration of Gardasil vaccine and we discuss their possible association.

Case No 1

A 19-year-old woman received two doses of Gardasil, 3 months apart, and approximately 1 month after the second dose, she developed numbness to the right foot that within 1 day extended to the contralateral foot and was associated with mid-thoracic back pain. Her neurological examination was only significant for the altered perception to touch to the feet. Deep tendon reflexes were normal and plantar reflexes in flexion. MRI of cervical and thoracic spine revealed a total of three lesions with characteristic demyelinating appearance, one of those in the thoracic spine was contrast-enhancing (figure 1A–C). MRI brain demonstrated one additional white matter lesion also consistent with a demyelinating process.” BMJ 2011
http://jnnp.bmj.com/content/82/11/1296.long


Evolution of multiple sclerosis in France since the beginning of hepatitis B vaccination

“Statistical data from these latter sources seem to show a significant correlation between the number of hepatitis B vaccinations performed and the declaration to the pharmacovigilance of multiple sclerosis occurring between 1 and 2 years later. The application of the Hill’s criteria to these data indicates that the correlation between hepatitis B vaccine and multiple sclerosis may be causal.”  Immunologic Research 2014
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4266455

Narcolepsy

Narcolepsy and hypersomnia in Norwegian children and young adults following the influenza A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic.

The study confirms an increased HR of narcolepsy following pandemic vaccination. Vaccine, 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28302408/


A novel vaccinological evaluation of intranasal vaccine and adjuvant safety for preclinical tests.

“The addition of adjuvants to vaccines may cause unwanted immune responses, including facial nerve paralysis and narcolepsy. ”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28063707/


Risk of narcolepsy in children and young people receiving AS03 adjuvanted pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza vaccine: retrospective analysis

“The increased risk of narcolepsy after vaccination with ASO3 adjuvanted pandemic A/H1N1 2009 vaccine indicates a causal association, consistent with findings from Finland.”
http://www.bmj.com/content/346/bmj.f794

Neurological

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis After Influenza Vaccination: A Case Report

“Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis developed in a 42-year-old woman within 3 weeks of receiving the seasonal influenza vaccine. She had 80% recovery after 3 months of treatment with methylprednisolone. Although cases of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis after vaccination for influenza are rare, enough of them have occurred that critical care nurses should be aware of the possibility. Early treatment can prevent serious residual signs and symptoms; therefore, correct and quick diagnosis is important. Medical history obtained from patients with central nervous system problems should include history of recent vaccinations.” Critical Care Nurse 2016
http://m.ccn.aacnjournals.org/content/36/3/e1.long


Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis after tetanus vaccination of a pregnant woman in Senegal.

The authors report a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in a 28-year-old pregnant woman at a gestational age of 10 weeks, admitted 15 days after a tetanus vaccination, with spastic tetraplegia and sphincter disturbances. Corticosteroid treatment led to partial recovery of the neurological deficit. Differential diagnosis of infectious and demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system is difficult in view of clinical and laboratory aspects of post-vaccination ADEM.”
Medecine Et Sante Tropicales  2012
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22868743


Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with oral polio vaccine.

“A 27-year-old woman presented with acute paresis after taking an oral polio vaccine (OPV). Deep tendon reflexes were preserved, needle electromyography showed no neurogenic changes, and there were no lesions on spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), suggesting that motor neurons of the spinal cord were not affected. Brain MRI showed abnormal lesions in the tegmentum of the upper pons, left cerebral peduncles, truncus of the corpus callosum, and right parietal lobe. Cerebrospinal fluid revealed mild pleocytosis. The most probable diagnosis was acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with OPV.” Internal Medicine 2006
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17106158

Ovarian

Adolescent Premature Ovarian Insufficiency Following Human Papillomavirus Vaccination: A Case Series Seen in General Practice.

Three young women developed premature ovarian insufficiency following quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. The unrelated girls were aged 16, 16, and 18 years at diagnosis. Each had received HPV vaccinations prior to the onset of ovarian decline.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26425627


Human papilloma virus vaccine and primary ovarian failure: another facet of the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants.

Evidence of the potential of the HPV vaccine to trigger a life-disabling autoimmune condition. The increasing number of similar reports of post HPV vaccine-linked autoimmunity and the uncertainty of long-term clinical benefits of HPV vaccination are a matter of public health that warrants further rigorous inquiry.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23902317/


A link between human papilloma virus vaccination and primary ovarian insufficiency: current analysis.

An increasing number of cases of POI post-HPV4 are being reported. Possible mechanisms for the suspected effect of HPV on female reproductive function are a toxic effect or an autoimmune response. The trigger could be the vaccine immunogen contents or the adjuvants, the latter are used to increase the immune reaction. The adjuvant in HPV4 contains aluminum. Animal models have shown aluminum exposure to inhibit expression of female reproductive hormones and to induce histologic changes in the ovaries.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26125978


Mumps and ovarian cancer: modern interpretation of an historic association

Mumps parotitis may lead to expression and immune recognition of a tumor-associated form of MUC1 and create effective immune surveillance of ovarian cancer cells that express this form of MUC1.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2951028/


Premature ovarian failure 3 years after menarche in a 16-year-old girl following human papillomavirus vaccination.

This patient presented with amenorrhoea after identifying a change from her regular cycle to irregular and scant periods following vaccinations against human papillomavirus. Premature ovarian failure was then notified as a possible adverse event following this vaccination.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23035167

Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis after human papillomavirus vaccination: a matter of molecular mimicry

“This case of acute pancreatitis after HPV vaccination is not a novel entity” Immunologic Research 2017
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27421720/


Pancreatitis caused by measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine.

“Acute pancreatitis may result from viral infections, including mumps, coxsackie B, Epstein-Barr, and varicella. However, viral pancreatitis has not been reported after immunization with viral vaccines. We report the occurrence of acute pancreatitis in an adult who had received measles, mumps, and rubella II vaccine (MMR II).” Pancreas 1991
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1876605/


Pancreatitis following human papillomavirus vaccination

“To the Editor: A 26-year-old woman presented with 24 hours of severe constant epigastric pain and vomiting. She had no history of similar pains, alcohol consumption or gallstones. Four days before presentation she had received her first dose of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Two days after vaccination she developed a fever and self-limiting rash of 3 days’ duration.” Med Journal 2008
https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2008/189/3/pancreatitis-following-human-papillomavirus-vaccination


Severe necrotizing pancreatitis following combined hepatitis A and B vaccination

“We report a case of necrotizing pancreatitis that developed following combined hepatitis A and B vaccination.” CMAJ 2007
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17261831/

Paralysis

Acute flaccid paralysis surveillance indicators in the Democratic Republic of Congo during 2008-2014.

“Of the 13,749 AFP cases investigated, 58.9% received at least three doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV), 7.3% never received OPV, while the status of 18.3% was unknown.” Pan African Medical Journal 2016
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27642491


Acute maternal anterior poliomyelitis in a non-endemic zone.

“The authors report the case of a 26 year old woman with acute anterior poliomyelitis contracted during the vaccination of her baby. Despite having been herself vaccinated in infancy she was not protected against the poliovirus. The clinical interest of this uncommon case is a severe paralytic state with definitive paraplegia.” Acta Neurologica Belgica 1989
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/2561040


Antibodies to human myelin proteins and gangliosides in patients with acute neuroparalytic accidents induced by brain-derived rabies vaccine.

“Antibody responses to myelin antigens were analysed in 15 patients who developed acute neuroparalytic accidents (ANPA) during post-exposure rabies vaccination using a rabies vaccine prepared on brain tissues and in 30 individuals who were uneventfully vaccinated.” Journal of Neuroimmunology 1989
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/9846820

Parkinsons

Acute Onset of Parkinsonism With Reversible Course After H1N1 Vaccination: Insight From a Young Lady

“To the Editor: Parkinsonian symptoms can be induced by acute encephalitis, syphilis, malaria, poliomyelitis, and sudden carbon monoxide poisoning.1,2 In this report, a 17-year-old girl had Parkinson’s disease (PD) symptoms after a flu shot. So far, this is the first vaccine-related disorder that mimics PD. Our experience has shown that some parkinsonism can be cured with accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.”
The Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences 2009
https://neuro.psychiatryonline.org/doi/pdf/10.1176/appi.neuropsych.11110324


Fatal outcome after postexposure rabies vaccination in a patient with Parkinson’s disease.

“CONCLUSION: Parkinson’s disease, with its complications, was the cause of death of the patient bitten by a rabid cat. Furthermore, the coincidence of the progression of Parkinson’s disease symptoms, at the time of postexposure rabies vaccination, points to the vaccine as a possible contributing factor to aggravation of the disease and lethal outcome.” Medicinski Pregled 2004
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15675624


Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease(s) may follow subclinical episodes of perivenous demyelination.

“Three case studies of postvaccinal parkinsonism (PVP) demonstrated signs and symptoms identical to conventional diagnostic standards of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD). PVP is a sub-type of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADE) that also includes postinfectious parkinsonism (PIP) and postinfectious encephalomyelitis (PIE). Evidence is presented that this pathoetiology probably accumulates subclinically over a long timespan prior to Levy body formation and presentation of clinical signs. This hypothesis has key features similar to one previously published that will be summarized concerning multiple sclerosis.” Medical Hypotheses 2002
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/12445523


The neurotoxicity of environmental aluminum is still an issue

Both normal brain aging and to a greater extent, Alzheimer’s disease are associated with elevated basal levels of markers for inflammation. These are not attributable to obvious exogenous stimuli and may reflect the lifespan history of the organism’s immune responses. It is possible that aluminum salts can act as a subtle promoter of such apparently unprovoked responses.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2946821/


Postvaccinal parkinsonism.

“A 5-year-old boy, with a history of fever beginning 15 days after a vaccination for measles, developed a rigid-akinetic syndrome 3 days after the fever began. A spinal tap obtained 1 week after the onset of fever showed pleocytosis with a monocellular pattern. A CT scan of the head and EEG did not disclose any abnormality. An MRI performed 3 months after the event, however, showed clear-cut evidence of bilateral substantia nigra lesions, suggesting secondary gliosis.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1350062/


Severe but transient parkinsonism after tetanus vaccination.

A 38 year old metal worker with a history of hypertension and hyperthyroidism presented with fluctuating fever and sweating, palpitations, tremor of the upper parts of both legs, and diplopia. These symptoms had been present for five days and had started within hours after he had received the last of three vaccinations for tetanus. There was no family history of movement disorders. Physical examination showed profuse sweating, normal consciousness, a temperature of 37.3°C, symmetric rigidity of all four limbs, and a painful tremor in the upper parts of his legs. Muscle strength, tendon reflexes, and sensation were normal.
Within a week he progressed to severe hypokinetic dysarthria, a mask-like face, and a resting tremor of both hands, and he had bradykinesia and generalised rigidity, together with a cogwheel phenomenon in the arms.
http://jnnp.bmj.com/content/63/2/258.long

Pertussis Vaccine

Acellular pertussis vaccines protect against disease but fail to prevent infection and transmission in a nonhuman primate model.

Baboons vaccinated with aP were not protected from colonization, did not clear the infection faster than naïve animals, and readily transmitted B. pertussis to unvaccinated contacts.  Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences, 2013
http://www.pnas.org/content/111/2/787


Unexpectedly Limited Durability of Immunity Following Acellular Pertussis Vaccination in PreAdolescents in a North American Outbreak.

Our data suggests that the current schedule of acellular pertussis vaccine doses is insufficient to prevent outbreaks of pertussis. Oxford Journals Medicine & Health Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2012
http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2012/03/13/cid.cis287.short


Whooping Cough Outbreaks Among Fully Vaccinated. 

CDC data shows 84 percent of children under the age of three have received at least four DTaP shots and yet, despite high vaccination rates, whooping cough still keeps circulating, largely among the fully vaccinatedOffice of Medical and Scientific Justice, 2012
https://www.omsj.org/blogs/historic-whooping-cough-outbreak-happening-among-the-fully-vaccinated


YEAR STUDY SHOWS RISK OF SERIOUS SIDE EFFECTS OF PERTUSSIS VACCINE HIGHER THAN RISKS OF DISEASE:

“There were no reports of serious problems or death from whooping cough in the area surveyed for many years at a time, despite low vaccination rates. It is concluded that, in children living in non-deprived circumstances in Britain, the risk of pertussis vaccine during the period 1970-83 exceeded those of whooping cough. In some deprived sectors, the risks from whooping cough might have been marginally higher but there was no evidence that this was associated with any increase in deaths or permanent disabilities.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3835080

Polio Vaccine

Medulloblastoma in childhood: an epidemiological study.

Correspondingly, an excessive number of children born in the period 1954 to 1958 have developed medulloblastomas. A relationship to polio vaccine contaminated with SV40 virus may exist. Children with medulloblastomas had an increased number of immediate family members with brain tumors, leukemia, and childhood cancer when compared to controls. Journal of Neurosurgery, 1984
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6470775


Poliovirus Vaccination during Pregnancy, Maternal Seroconversion to Simian Virus 40, and Risk of Childhood Cancer.

Those children whose mothers had received pre-1963 poliovirus vaccine during pregnancy (22.5% of the children) had an increased incidence of neural tumors and hematologic malignancies. Oxford Journals Medicine & Health American Journal of Epidemiology
https://academic.oup.com/aje/article/160/4/306/165872


Simian Virus 40 Infection of Humans.

SV40 DNA was detected on rare occasions, usually in brain tumors, using relatively low-sensitivity Southern hybridization techniques, immunostaining for LT, and electron microscopy. Journal of Virology, 2003
http://jvi.asm.org/content/77/9/5039.full

Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS)

Current Safety Concerns with Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: A Cluster Analysis of Reports in VigiBase® (2017)

“Cluster analysis reveals additional reports of AEs following HPV vaccination that are serious in nature and describe symptoms that overlap those reported in cases from the recent safety signals (POTS, CRPS, and CFS), but which do not report explicit diagnoses. While the causal association between HPV vaccination and these AEs remains uncertain, more extensive analyses of spontaneous reports can better identify the relevant case series for thorough signal evaluation.” Drug Safety 2017
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40264-016-0456-3


HPV vaccination syndrome. A questionnaire-based study.

“..93% of patients continue to have incapacitating symptoms and remain unable to attend school or work. In conclusion, a disabling syndrome of chronic neuropathic pain, fatigue, and autonomic dysfunction may appear after HPV vaccination.” Clinical Rheumatology 2015
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26354426/


Human papillomavirus vaccines, complex regional pain syndrome, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, and autonomic dysfunction – a review of the regulatory evidence from the European Medicines Agency.

“Recent concerns about a possible association between exposure of young women to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines and two “dysautonomic syndromes” (a collection of signs and symptoms thought to be caused by autoimmunity) – complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) – led the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to review existing evidence.” Indian Journal of Medical Ethics 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27867145/

Psychiatric

Behavioral abnormalities in female mice following administration of aluminum adjuvants and the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Gardasil.

It appears that Gardasil via its Al adjuvant and HPV antigens has the ability to trigger neuroinflammation and autoimmune reactions, further leading to behavioral changes. Immunology Research 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27421722


An evaluation of the effects of thimerosal on neurodevelopmental disorders reported following DTP and Hib vaccines in comparison to DTPH vaccine in the United States.

“Significantly increased odds ratios for autism, speech disorders, mental retardation, infantile spasms, and thinking abnormalities reported to VAERS were found following DTP vaccines in comparison to DTPH vaccines with minimal bias or systematic error.” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 2006
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16766480


Mechanisms of aluminum adjuvant toxicity and autoimmunity in pediatric populations.

“In summary, research evidence shows that increasing concerns about current vaccination practices may indeed be warranted. Because children may be most at risk of vaccine-induced complications, a rigorous evaluation of the vaccine-related adverse health impacts in the pediatric population is urgently needed.” Lupus 2012
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22235057

Purpura

Thrombocytopenic purpura after isolated or combined vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella

Vaccine-associated TP appears to be similar to acute childhood idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura but the clear temporal relationship between MMR vaccination and the occurrence of TP make a causal relationship highly plausible.
http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/9164004


Henoch-Schönlein purpura and drug and vaccine use in childhood: a case-control study 

Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine showed an increased risk of HSP (Henoch-Schönlein purpura)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4912703/


Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and MMR vaccine

A CAUSAL ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MEASLES—mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) was confirmed using immunisation/hospital admission record linkage.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1718684/


The Risk of Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura After Vaccination in Children and Adolescents

There was a significantly elevated risk of ITP after hepatitis A vaccine at 7 to 17 years of age, and for varicella vaccine and tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine at 11 to 17 years of age. For hepatitis A, varicella, and tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccines, elevated risks were based on one to two vaccine-exposed cases.
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/early/2012/01/04/peds.2011-1111.full.pdf


Immune thrombocytopaenic purpura: an autoimmune cross-link between infections and vaccines

Vaccines such as MMR may prompt ITP.
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0961203313499959


Thrombocytopenic purpura as adverse reaction to recombinant hepatitis B vaccine

The recombinant hepatitis B vaccine, presently used worldwide, is highly immunogenic. Serious adverse reactions such as anaphylaxis and poly- radiculoneuritis, demyelination of the central nervous system, liver dysfunction and DNA antibodies, or Evan’s syndrome (autoimmune haemolytic anaemia and thrombocytopenia) are reported.
http://adc.bmj.com/content/78/3/273

Pregnancy

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis after tetanus vaccination of a pregnant woman in Senegal.

“Although neurological complications have been described after tetanus vaccinations, they are rare. The authors report a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in a 28-year-old pregnant woman at a gestational age of 10 weeks, admitted 15 days after a tetanus vaccination, with spastic tetraplegia and sphincter disturbances.” Medecine Et Sante Tropicales 2012
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22868743


Adverse event reports after tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccines in pregnant women.

“The most frequent pregnancy-specific AE was spontaneous abortion in 22 (16.7%) reports.”
American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 2012
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22727350


Are toxic biometals destroying your children’s future?

“Cadmium, arsenic, lead, and mercury have been linked to autism, attention deficit disorder, mental retardation and death of children. Mercury in thimerosal found in many vaccines and flu shots contributes significantly to these problems. Decomposition of the thimerosal can produce more toxic compounds, either methylethylmercury or diethylmercury, in the body. These compounds have a toxicity level similar to dimethylmercury. Within the human body, a mitochondrial disorder may release the more toxic form of mercury internally. Young children and pregnant women must minimize internal exposure to the vaccines and flu shots containing mercury.” BioMetals 2009
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19205900

Respiratory

Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis after pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccination.

“We report a case of acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) after pandemic influenza (H1N1) vaccination.” International Medicine, 2010
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21048370/


Acute Lung Injury Accompanying Alveolar Hemorrhage Associated with Flu Vaccination in the Elderly.

“We herein describe a case of acute lung injury resulting from a pathologically confirmed alveolar hemorrhage, which may have been closely related to a preceding vaccination for pandemic influenza A of 2009/10. The present patient had been hospitalized with an acute lung injury after flu vaccination one year prior to the present hospitalization, however, he received another flu vaccination.” International Medicine, 2015
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26666611/


Adverse events following vaccination in premature infants.

“Vaccine-related cardiorespiratory events are relatively common in preterm babies. Problems were much more common if vaccine is administered at or before 70 d. These babies should therefore be monitored postvaccination.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/11529542

Rhogam

Clinical Outcomes after Hepatitis C Infection from Contaminated Anti-D Immune Globulin

In the report by Kenny-Walsh and the Irish Hepatology Research Group (April 22 issue)1 on the outbreak of hepatitis C in Ireland in 1977 associated with the administration of anti-D immune globulin contaminated with hepatitis C virus (HCV),The New England Journal of Medicine 1999
http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM199909023411013


Doctors to face disciplinary action over Irish hepatitis C scandal.

“The Irish Medical Council’s fitness to practice committee is to begin a disciplinary examination of the role of several doctors criticised by an official Tribunal of Inquiry into the country’s hepatitis C scandal. More than 1000 mothers were infected through contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin in the mid-1970s.” BMJ 1998
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2665410/pdf/9462311.pdf


Management of hypersensitivity reactions to anti-D immunoglobulin preparations.

“RhD immunoglobulin G (anti-D) administered to pregnant Rh(-) women prevents Rh isoimmunization. Its use has significantly reduced the incidence of haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn previously responsible for one death in every 2200 births.” Allergy 2014
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25066207

Seizures

Case report: probable transmission of vaccine strain of yellow fever virus to an infant via breast milk.

The 17D yellow fever vaccine is a live-virus vaccine that has been in use since the 1940s. The incidence of encephalitis after yellow fever vaccination among young infants is much higher than among children older than nine months of age. Until recently, avoidance of vaccination by breastfeeding women who have received yellow fever vaccine had been based on theoretical grounds only. We report the probable transmission of vaccine strain of yellow fever virus from a mother to her infant through breastfeeding. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2001
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3050973


Complications of pertussis immunization (author transl).

“16 cases of neurological disease and/or death shortly after pertussis immunization are reported. Eight patients had convulsions, six with ensuing permanent defects. Severe polymyositis was observed in one case. Five infants died 12 h to 4 days after vaccination: two after acute encephalopathy and three in the form of a sudden unexpected death (SID).”
Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde 1077
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18670


Demyelinating disease and vaccination of the human papillomavirus.

“CONCLUSIONS: Have been described seizures, autoimmune disorders such as Guillain-Barre syndrome, transverse myelitis, or motor neuron disease, probably adverse effects following immunization by HPV vaccine. So we suggest that vaccine may trigger an immunological mechanism leading to demyelinating events, perhaps in predisposed young.”
Revue Neurologique 2011
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21425100

Sepsis

Premature babies have higher risk of sepsis and cardiorespiratory events after vaccination in the NICU. 

This study reports a significant increase in the incidence of sepsis evaluations, respiratory support, and intubation after immunization of premature babies in the NICU. The findings of this study confirm what a number of other retrospective studies have found—that low birth weight infants appear to have an increase in cardiorespiratory events and sepsis evaluations after vaccination. The main strength of this study and what makes it unique is its large sample size of infants born at less than 28 weeks gestation. JAMA Pediatrics, 2015
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/article-abstract/2300374

Shaken Baby Syndrome

Elevated blood histamine caused by vaccinations and Vitamin C deficiency may mimic the shaken baby syndrome.

“The findings of subdural hematoma and retinal hemorrhages in infants, without any documented history of major trauma, do not always indicate child abuse. A combination of ascorbate depletion and the injection of foreign proteins can cause a very high blood histamine level, leading to capillary fragility and venular bleeding. This can be prevented by the administration of vitamin C.” Medical Hypotheses 2004
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15050101/


The evidence base for shaken baby syndrome

“There is every reason to believe that infant deaths following vaccinations could be prevented or markedly reduced by the administration of vitamin C before inoculations, instead of the more usual paracetamol (4, 5). Not only will there be a decrease in the infant death rate; but also an important reduction in the incidence of cerebral palsy, epilepsy, cognitive and behavioural problems, and intellectual impairment, can be expected.” BMJ 2004
http://www.bmj.com/rapid-response/2011/10/30/errors-diagnosis-child-abuse

Shingles

Anaphylaxis after zoster vaccine: Implicating alpha-gal allergy as a possible mechanism.

“Gelatin and other nonprimate mammal–derived products are common excipient ingredients in several vaccines, and it has been postulated that patients with alpha-gal allergy might react to these vaccines.” The journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2017
http://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(16)31455-5/fulltext


Chickenpox attributable to a vaccine virus contracted from a vaccinee with zoster.

“Five months after 2 siblings were immunized with varicella vaccine, 1 developed zoster. Two weeks later the second sibling got a mild case of chicken pox. Virus isolated from the latter was found to be vaccine type. Thus, the vaccine strain was transmitted from the vaccinee with zoster to his sibling. Vaccinees who later develop zoster must be considered contagious.” Pediatrics 2000
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/10920184


Disseminated, persistent, and fatal infection due to the vaccine strain of varicella-zoster virus in an adult following stem cell transplantation.

Here, we describe the fatality of an immunocompromised patient who received the varicella vaccine.” Clinical Infectious Diseases 2015
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25452596

Shoulder Injury

Don’t aim too high: Avoiding shoulder injury related to vaccine administration

“DISCUSSION: SIRVA has previously been described in the world literature. Seventeen cases in women and five cases in men were found. Pain and reduction in the range of movement within a few hours of vaccination were cardinal signs of a shoulder injury. This included injuries to the soft tissues of the shoulder as well as injuries to bone and joint.” Australian Family Physician 2016
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27166466


Shoulder injury related to vaccine administration (SIRVA)

“Shoulder pain is a common transient side-effect of vaccination.” Vaccine 2010
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20955829


Subdeltoid/subacromial bursitis associated with influenza vaccination

“A 76-year-old male presented with subacromial/subdeltoid bursitis following influenza vaccine administration into the left deltoid muscle.” Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 2014
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24284281

Stroke

Ischaemic stroke and influenza A H1N1 vaccination: a case report.

“We report a 75-year-old male patient who suffered posterior circulation ischaemia after influenza A/H1N1 vaccination. Vaccination provokes a variable magnitude of inflammatory and immunological response that modifies the risk for ischaemic stroke.” Archives of Medical Science 2011
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22291779


Stroke after varicella vaccination.

“Two children presented with acute hemiparesis 5 days and 3 weeks following varicella vaccination. Both showed unilateral infarction of the basal ganglia and internal capsule, a distribution consistent with varicella angiopathy.” Journal of Pediatrics 2004
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15580216

Sudden Infant Death Studies

Sudden infant death following hexavalent vaccination: a neuropathologic study.

We hypothesize that vaccine components could have a direct role in sparking off a lethal outcome in vulnerable babies. In conclusion, we sustain the need that deaths occurring in a short space of time after hexavalent vaccination are appropriately investigated and submitted to a post-mortem examination particularly of the autonomic nervous system by an expert pathologist to objectively evaluate the possible causative role of the vaccine in SIDS. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 2014
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24083600/


Infant mortality rates regressed against number of vaccine doses routinely given: Is there a biochemical or synergistic toxicity? 

Almost no SIDS prior to vaccine programs. SIDS diagnosis introduced in 1973 (note 16, page 10) Human & Experimental Toxicology, 2011
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3170075


The epidemiology of fatalities reported to the vaccine adverse event reporting system 1990-1997.

Over 600 cases of sudden infant death syndrome following vaccination were reported from 1990-1997. Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety, 2001
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11760487

Thimerosal Studies

Administration of thimerosal to infant rats increases overflow of glutamate and aspartate in the prefrontal cortex: protective role of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. 

Since excessive accumulation of extracellular glutamate is linked with excitotoxicity, our data imply that neonatal exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccines might induce excitotoxic brain injuries, leading to neurodevelopmental disorders. Neurochemical Research. 2012
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22015977


Comparison of Blood and Brain Mercury Levels in Infant Monkeys Exposed to Methylmercury or Vaccines Containing Thimerosal. 

Brain concentrations of total Hg were significantly lower by approximately 3-fold for the thimerosal-exposed monkeys when compared with the MeHg infants, whereas the average brain-to-blood concentration ratio was slightly higher for the thimerosal-exposed monkeys. Environmental Health Perspectives, August 2005
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16079072


Integrating experimental (in vitro and in vivo) neurotoxicity studies of low-dose thimerosal relevant to vaccines. 

Thimerosal at concentrations relevant for infants’ exposure (in vaccines) is toxic to cultured human-brain cells and to laboratory animals. Neurochemical Research. 2011
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21350943

Thyroid Studies

Adjuvants- and vaccines-induced autoimmunity: animal models.

“Sometimes they [adjuvants] can reproduce human autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, autoimmune thyroiditis and antiphospholipid syndrome and may provide insights about the potential adverse effects of adjuvants.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27417999


Autoimmune/Inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants and Thyroid Autoimmunity.

Indeed, clinical cases of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and/or subacute thyroiditis were observed after the exposure to vaccines as well as silicone implantation.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5256113/


[Differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis in subjects with post-immunization reaction].

“An increasingly greater fraction of the general population is getting involved in the immunization program. However, conditions of individual subjects are not always properly evaluated prior to immunization. The clinical case reported below demonstrates the difficulty of diagnostic examination of patients with Graves disease (toxic goiter), endocrine ophthalmopathy, and post-immunization reaction.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20369619/

Tics/Tourettes

Methodological issues and evidence of malfeasance in research purporting to show thimerosal in vaccines is safe.

“There are over 165 studies that have focused on Thimerosal, an organic-mercury (Hg) based compound, used as a preservative in many childhood vaccines, and found it to be harmful.”
BioMed Research International 2014  
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24995277


Thimerosal exposure in early life and neuropsychological outcomes 7-10 years later.

“There was a small, but statistically significant association between early thimerosal exposure and the presence of tics in boys.” Journal of Pediatric Psychology 2012
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21785120


Thimerosal exposure in infants and neurodevelopmental disorders: an assessment of computerized medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink.

“Consistent significantly increased rate ratios were observed for autism, autism spectrum disorders, tics, attention deficit disorder, and emotional disturbances with Hg exposure from TCVs.”
Journal of the Neurological Sciences 2008
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18482737


A two-phased population epidemiological study of the safety of thimerosal-containing vaccines: a follow-up analysis.

“Phase one showed significantly increased risks for autism, speech disorders, mental retardation, personality disorders, and thinking abnormalities reported to VAERS following thimerosal-containing DTaP vaccines in comparison to thimerosal-free DTaP vaccines. Phase two showed significant associations between cumulative exposures to thimerosal and the following types of NDs: unspecified developmental delay, tics, attention deficit disorder (ADD), language delay, speech delay, and neurodevelopmental delays in general.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15795695


Thimerosal exposure and increased risk for diagnosed tic disorder in the United States: a case-control study

The present study associates increasing organic-Hg exposure from TM-HepB and the subsequent risk of a TD diagnosis
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4961900/

Transverse Myelitis

Acute transverse myelitis following vaccination against H1N1 influenza: a case report.

“Here we describe for the first time a serious adverse event, i.e., acute transverse myelitis, following H1N1 vaccination in China.”  International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology 2011
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21487527


Acute transverse myelitis secondary to hepatitis B vaccination.

“INTRODUCTION: Acute transverse myelitis is an inflammatory disorder. The pathogenesis is unclear, but the probable mechanism involves an autoimmune phenomenon. Possible causes included multiple sclerosis and parainfectious and postvaccinal events. Myelitis has rarely been reported secondary to vaccinations including hepatitis B.” Revista De Neurologia 2000
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/11027094


Demyelinating disease and vaccination of the human papillomavirus.

“CONCLUSIONS: Have been described seizures, autoimmune disorders such as Guillain-Barre syndrome, transverse myelitis, or motor neuron disease, probably adverse effects following immunization by HPV vaccine. So we suggest that vaccine may trigger an immunological mechanism leading to demyelinating events, perhaps in predisposed young.”
Revista De Neurologia 2011
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21425100


Transverse myelitis and vaccines: a multi-analysis.

“We have disclosed 37 reported cases of transverse myelitis associated with different vaccines including those against hepatitis B virus, measles-mumps-rubella, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and others, given to infants, children and adults.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19880568


Transverse Myelitis Activation Post-H1N1 Immunization: A Case of Adjuvant Induction

The induction of transverse myelitis post-immunization is plau- sible in view of the increasing frequency of case reports in the medical literature demonstrating this phenomenon as well as the growing biological evidence of a post- vaccination autoimmune pathogenesis.
https://www.ima.org.il/FilesUpload/IMAJ/0/107/53806.pdf

Typhoid

Acute renal failure after TAB and cholera vaccination.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1597965


Lethal complications of typhoid-cholera-vaccination. (Case report and review of the literature).

“Simultaneous parenteral vaccination against typhoid and cholera lead to death through either anaphylactic shock or endotoxic shock in a 36-year-old male.” Beitrage Zur Pathologie 1976
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/985298


Safety of live vaccinations on immunosuppressive therapy in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, solid organ transplantation or after bone-marrow transplantation – A systematic review of randomized trials, observational studies and case reports.

“However, some serious vaccine-related adverse events occurred. 32 participants developed an infection with the vaccine strain; in most cases the infection was mild. However, in two patients fatal infections were reported” Vaccine 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28162821


Sudden death after typhoid and Japanese encephalitis vaccination in a young male taking pseudoephedrine.

“The case of a 21-year-old male taking over-the-counter pseudoephedrine for weight loss who died suddenly during exercise shortly after inoculation with Japanese encephalitis and phenol-inactivated typhoid vaccines is presented. The patient collapsed in mild weather while exercising 75 minutes after his vaccinations.” Military Medicine 1999
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/10050577


Sudden, unexpected death following typhoid-cholera vaccination.

A previously healthy 33-year-old Australian male died suddenly and unexpectedly 8 h after a typhoid-cholera vaccination. The clinical course and necropsy findings suggest that death was the result of a slowly evolving systemic anaphylactic reaction which terminated in hypotension and right heart failure. The deceased was probably atopic. The current recommendations for the vaccination of international travellers against typhoid and cholera are discussed.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/6698459

Vaccine Failure Studies

Acute flaccid paralysis surveillance indicators in the Democratic Republic of Congo during 2008-2014

“Of the 13,749 AFP cases investigated, 58.9% received at least three doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV), 7.3% never received OPV, while the status of 18.3% was unknown.” Pan African Medical Journal 2016
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27642491


Adverse events associated with childhood vaccines other than pertussis and rubella. Summary of a report from the Institute of Medicine.

The committee found that the evidence favored acceptance of a causal relation between diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and Guillain-Barré syndrome and brachial neuritis, between measles vaccine and anaphylaxis, between oral polio vaccine and Guillain-Barré syndrome, and between unconjugated Hib vaccine and susceptibility to Hib disease. The committee found that the evidence established causality between diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and anaphylaxis, between measles vaccine and death from measles vaccine-strain viral infection, between measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and thrombocytopenia and anaphylaxis, between oral polio vaccine and poliomyelitis and death from polio vaccine-strain viral infection, and between hepatitis B vaccine and anaphylaxis. JAMA 1994
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8182813/


‘An American tragedy’. the Cutter incident and its implications for the Salk polio vaccine in New Zealand 1955-1960.

“During the United States polio immunisation campaign in 1955 a number of children immunised with Cutter Laboratories vaccine were stricken with the disease, halting the programme.” Health History 1990
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20481116/

Vaccine Ingredients Studies

Temporal Association of Certain Neuropsychiatric Disorders Following Vaccination of Children and Adolescents: A Pilot Case–Control Study. 

New groundbreaking study shows connection between vaccines and OCD, tics, anxiety and anorexia. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 2017
http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00003/full


Adverse events following immunization with vaccines containing adjuvants.

Forty-three out of 120 patients with moderate or severe manifestations following immunization were hospitalized from 2008 to 2011. All patients fulfilled at least 2 major and 1 minor criteria suggested by Shoenfeld and Agmon-Levin for ASIA diagnosis. The most frequent clinical findings were pyrexia 68%, arthralgias 47%, cutaneous disorders 33%, muscle weakness 16% and myalgias 14%. Three patients had diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome, one patient had Adult-Still’s disease 3 days after vaccination. A total of 76% of the events occurred in the first 3 days post-vaccination. Two patients with previous autoimmune disease showed severe adverse reactions with the reactivation of their illness. Minor local reactions were present in 49% of patients. Vaccines containing adjuvants may be associated with an increased risk of autoimmune/inflammatory adverse events following immunization.  Immunologic Research, 2013
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23576057


Vaccination and herd immunity: what more do we know? 

There have been some recent conceptual developments in vaccine ‘herd immunity’ or ‘herd protection’ that address the complexities of imperfect immunity. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, 2012
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22561998/


Investigating Viruses in Cells Used to Make Vaccines; and Evaluating the Potential Threat Posed by Transmission of Viruses to Humans. 

In some cases the cell lines that are used (in vaccines) might be tumorigenic, that is, they form tumors when injected into rodents. Some of these tumor-forming cell lines may contain cancer-causing viruses that are not actively reproducing. FDA.gov
http://www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/scienceresearch/biologicsresearchareas/ucm127327.htm


Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Formaldehyde: A Systematic Review.

Meta-analysis showing that formaldehyde — a known carcinogen and and ingredient in most childhood vaccines — exposure causes reproductive and developmental harm, including spontaneous abortions in pregnancy at low doses. Most studies included are in animals that can have similar drug reactions as humans because human toxicity studies are not ethical. Mutation Research, 2011
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1383574211000548

Vaccine Shedding Studies

Detection of fecal shedding of rotavirus vaccine in infants following their first dose of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine.

Rotavirus antigen was detected as early as post-vaccination day 3 and as late as day 9, with peak numbers of shedding on post-vaccination days 6 through 8. Vaccine-type rotavirus was detected in all 50 antigen-positive specimens and 8 of 8 antigen-negative specimens.Vaccine. 2011
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21477676


Rotavirus vaccines: viral shedding and risk of transmission. 

Transmission of vaccine virus strains from vaccinated children to unvaccinated contacts risks of vaccine-derived disease in immunocompromised contacts. Lancet Infect Dis. 2008
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18922486


Sibling Transmission of Vaccine-Derived Rotavirus (RotaTeq) Associated With Rotavirus Gastroenteritis. 

We document here the occurrence of vaccine-derived rotavirus (RotaTeq [Merck and Co, Whitehouse Station, NJ]) transmission from a vaccinated infant to an older, unvaccinated sibling, resulting in symptomatic rotavirus gastroenteritis that required emergency department care. Pediatrics, 2010
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/125/2/e438


Pertussis Infection in Fully Vaccinated Children in Day-Care Centers, Israel.

Vaccinated adolescents and adults may serve as reservoirs for silent infection and become potential transmitters to unprotected infants. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2000
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2627963/pdf/10998384.pdf


The Case against Universal Varicella Vaccination 

With regard to the reporting in VAERS, the timing of a disease closely following a vaccination and lack of any other obvious cause are most often the only criteria of potential significance for a suspected adverse reaction. International Journal of Toxicology, 2006
http://www.whale.to/vaccines/goldman.pdf

Veterinary

Adjuvant activity of a novel metabolizable lipid emulsion with inactivated viral vaccines.

Studies were conducted in mice, hamsters, sheep, and two species of nonhuman primates which demonstrate the adjuvant activity of a new metabolizable lipid emulsion with marginally immunogenic doses of Formalin-inactivated viral vaccines.Infection and Immunity 1980
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/6772571


Adjuvants- and vaccines-induced autoimmunity: animal models.

“In some cases, adjuvants may trigger generalized autoimmune response, resulting in multiple auto-antibodies, but sometimes they can reproduce human autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, autoimmune thyroiditis and antiphospholipid syndrome and may provide insights about the potential adverse effects of adjuvants.” Immunologic Research 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27417999


Adverse events diagnosed within three days of vaccine administration in dogs.

“Young adult small-breed neutered dogs that received multiple vaccines per office visit were at greatest risk of a VAAE {vaccine-associated adverse events} within 72 hours after vaccination.”
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2005
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16220670

Vitamin K

Accidental Administration of an Ergot Alkaloid to a Neonate

“We describe a neonate with altered splanchnic arterial blood flow after accidental substitution of an ergot alkaloid, methylergonovine maleate (MEM), for vitamin K1.” Pediatrics 1996
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/98/3/457.long


Anaphylactic shock due to vitamin K in a newborn and review of literature.

“We herein report a case of anaphylactic shock developing after the intramuscular administration of vitamin K1 in a newborn.” The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine 2014
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24059412


Childhood cancer, intramuscular vitamin K, and pethidine given during labour.

“The only two studies so far to have examined the relation between childhood cancer and intramuscular vitamin K have shown similar results, and the relation is biologically plausible. The prophylactic benefits against haemorrhagic disease are unlikely to exceed the potential adverse effects from intramuscular vitamin K. Since oral vitamin K has major benefits but no obvious adverse effects this could be the prophylaxis of choice.” BMJ 1992
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1392886

Yellow Fever Vaccine

Review of the risks and benefits of yellow fever vaccination including some new analyses.

This study shows the risk of DEATH from the Yellow Fever vaccine is higher than risk of contracting yellow fever as a traveller. Expert Review of Vaccines. 2012
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22551029


Occurrence of Autoimmune Diseases Related to the Vaccine against Yellow Fever.

This systematic review aims to identify the occurrence of autoinflammatory diseases related to Yellow Fever vaccine administration. Autoimmune Disease 2014
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25405025


Yellow Fever Virus Vaccine–associated Deaths in Young Women

A review of published and other data suggested a higher than expected number of deaths from yellow fever vaccine–associated viscerotropic disease among women 19–34 years of age without known immunodeficiency. Emergence of Infectious Disease. 2011
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3310656/


Adverse events associated with 17D-derived yellow fever vaccination–United States, 2001-2002.

This report summarizes the preliminary surveillance findings, including two new suspected cases of YEL-AVD and four suspected cases of YEL-associated neurotropic disease (YEL-AND) (previously called postvaccinal encephalitis). MMWR Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report. 2002
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12455906


Yellow fever vaccines and international travelers.

Reports of severe and previously unrecognized significant adverse events linked to the 17D vaccine have caused major concern. Expert Review of Vaccines. 2008
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18564013


Yellow fever vaccine: an updated assessment of advanced age as a risk factor for serious adverse events.

The scientific community has become aware of 14 reports of yellow fever vaccine (YEL)-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) cases and four reports of YEL-associated neurotropic disease (YEL-AND) worldwide, changing our understanding of the risks of the vaccine. Based on 722 adverse event reports after YEL submitted to the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System in 1990-2002, we updated the estimates of the age-adjusted reporting rates of serious adverse events, YEL-AVD and YEL-AND. Vaccine. 2005 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15837230

Autism & Vaccine Studies

A Positive Association found between Autism Prevalence and Childhood Vaccination uptake across the U.S. Population. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 2011

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21623535

Abnormal measles-mumps-rubella antibodies and CNS autoimmunity in children with autism. Journal of Biomedical Science, 2002

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12145534

Autism: A Brain Disorder, or A Disorder That Affects the Brain? Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 2005

http://www.clinicalneuropsychiatry.org/pdf/04_herbert.pdf

B-Lymphocytes from a Population of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Unaffected Siblings Exhibit Hypersensitivity to Thimerosal Journal of Toxicology, 2013

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jt/2013/801517/

Blood Levels of Mercury Are Related to Diagnosis of Autism: A Reanalysis of an Important Data Set Journal of Child Neurology, 2007

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18006963

California’s Autism Increase Not Due to Better Counting, Diagnosis Journal of Epidemiology, 2009 UC Davis Health System

http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/welcome/features/20090218_autism_environment/

Detection and sequencing of measles virus from peripheral mononuclear cells from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and autism. Dig Dis Science, 2000

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10759242

Developmental Regression and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a Child With Autism Journal of Child Neurology, 2006

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16566887

Do aluminum vaccine adjuvants contribute to the rising prevalence of autism? Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 2011

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22099159

Elevated levels of measles antibodies in children with autism. Pediatric Neurology, 2003

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12849883

Emperical Data Confirms Autism Symptoms Related to Aluminum and Acetominophen Exposure Entropy, 2012

http://www.mdpi.com/10994300/

Environmental mercury release, special education rates, and autism disorder: an ecological study of Texas Health Place, 2006

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16338635

Evidence of Toxicity, Oxidative Stress, and Neuronal Insult in Autism Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 2006

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17090484

Hepatitis B vaccination of male neonates and autism diagnosis, NHIS 19972002. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 2010

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21058170

Hypothesis: conjugate vaccines may predispose children to autism spectrum disorders. Medical Hypotheses, 2011

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21993250

A two-phase study evaluating the relationship between Thimerosal-containing vaccine administration and the risk for an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in the United States.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3878266/

A positive association found between autism prevalence and childhood vaccination uptake across the U.S. population.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21623535

Commentary–Controversies surrounding mercury in vaccines: autism denial as impediment to universal immunisation.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25377033

Methodological issues and evidence of malfeasance in research purporting to show thimerosal in vaccines is safe.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24995277

Abnormal measles-mumps-rubella antibodies and CNS autoimmunity in children with autism.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12145534

Hepatitis B vaccination of male neonates and autism diagnosis, NHIS 1997-2002.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21058170

Do aluminum vaccine adjuvants contribute to the rising prevalence of autism?

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22099159

What is regressive autism and why does it occur? Is it the consequence of multi-systemic dysfunction affecting the elimination of heavy metals and the ability to regulate neural temperature?

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3364648/

A case series of children with apparent mercury toxic encephalopathies manifesting with clinical symptoms of regressive autistic disorders.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17454560

A comprehensive review of mercury provoked autism.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19106436

A comprehensive review of mercury provoked autism.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19106436

Thimerosal Exposure and the Role of Sulfation Chemistry and Thiol Availability in Autism

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3774468/

B-Lymphocytes from a Population of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Unaffected Siblings Exhibit Hypersensitivity to Thimerosal

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3697751/

Cause of vaccine associated measles five weeks post immunization. British Columbia, Canada, 2013

http://www.eurosurveillance.org/images/dynamic/EE/V18N49/art20649.pdf

Detection of measles virus RNA in urine specimens from vaccine recipients. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1995

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC228449/

Failure to reach the goal of measles elimination. Apparent paradox of measles infections in immunized persons. Arch Intern Med, 1994

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8053748

Outbreak of Measles Among Persons With Prior Evidence of Immunity, New York City. Oxford Journals, 2010

http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/02/27/cid.ciu105

Horizontal transmission of the Leningrad-3 live attenuated mumps vaccine virus. Vaccine, 2006

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16266774

Transmission of mumps virus from mumps vaccinated individuals to close contacts Vaccine, 2011

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21983359

Mumps vaccine virus transmission. Vopr Virusol, 2013

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24772647

Impact of environmental factors on the prevalence of autistic disorder after 1979 Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology, July 2014

http://www.ms.academicjournals.org/article/article1409245960_Deisher%20et%20al.pdf

Measles-mumps-rubella vaccination timing and autism among young African American boys: a reanalysis of CDC data. Transl Neurodegener, 2014

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25114790

Metabolic biomarkers of increased oxidative stress and impaired methylation capacity in children with autism American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, December 2004

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15585776

Neuroglial Activation and Neuro-inflammation in the Brain of Patients with Autism Annals of Neurology, Feb 2005

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15546155

Oxidative Stress in Autism: Elevated Cerebellar 3-nitrotyrosine Levels American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 2008

http://thescipub.com/PDF/ajbbsp.2008.73.84.pdf

Porphyrinuria in childhood autistic disorder: Implications for environmental toxicity Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 2006

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16782144

Possible Immunological Disorders in Autism: Concomitant Autoimmunity and Immune Tolerance The Egyptian Journal of Immunology, 2006

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17974154

Reduced levels of mercury in first baby haircuts of autistic children. International Journal of Toxicology, 2003

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12933322

Serological association of measles virus and human herpesvirus-6 with brain autoantibodies in autism. Clin Immunol Immunopathol, 1998

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9756729

Sorting out the spinning of autism: heavy metals and the question of incidence Acta Neurobiol Exp, 2010

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20628440

Vaccines and Regressive Autism North American Journal of Medical Sciences, July 2009

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3364648/#!po=4.09836

Validation of the Phenomenon of Autistic Regression Using Home Videotapes Archives of General Psychiatry, 2005

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16061766

What’s going on? The question of time trends in autism. Public Health Rep. 2004

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1497666/

What is regressive autism and why does it occur? Is it the consequence of multi systemic dysfunction affecting the elimination of heavy metals and the ability to regulate neural temperature? North American Journal of Medical Science, 2009

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3364648/

News Report: CDC Admits Vaccines Can in Some Cases Trigger Autism

http://sharylattkisson.com/cdcpossibilitythatvaccinesrarelytriggerautism

News Report: Where are The Autistic Amish? CBS Reporter Sharyl Attkisson, July 2014

http://sharylattkisson.com/wherearetheautisticamish/

Theoretical aspects of autism: causes–a review.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21299355

Conjugate vaccines and autism.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21907498

Autism: a novel form of mercury poisoning.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11339848

A prospective study of thimerosal-containing Rho(D)-immune globulin administration as a risk factor for autistic disorders.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17674242

Hypothesis: conjugate vaccines may predispose children to autism spectrum disorders.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21993250

The potential importance of steroids in the treatment of autistic spectrum disorders and other disorders involving mercury toxicity.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15780490

Reduced levels of mercury in first baby haircuts of autistic children.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12933322

Cultured lymphocytes from autistic children and non-autistic siblings up-regulate heat shock protein RNA in response to thimerosal challenge.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16870260

A possible central mechanism in autism spectrum disorders, part 1.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19043938

The role of mercury in the pathogenesis of autism.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12142947

Transcriptomic analyses of neurotoxic effects in mouse brain after intermittent neonatal administration of thimerosal.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24675092

A dose-response relationship between organic mercury exposure from thimerosal-containing vaccines and neurodevelopmental disorders.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25198681

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