Anaphylactic reactions to measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in three children with allergies to hen’s egg and cow’s milk. Acta Paediatr. 2011
“AIM: Allergies to hen’s egg and cow’s milk are the most frequent food allergies in infancy and childhood. Current guidelines recommend safe administration of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in egg allergic patients.”
Anaphylaxis after zoster vaccine: Implicating alpha-gal allergy as a possible mechanism.
The journal of allergy and clinical immunology
“Gelatin and other nonprimate mammal–derived products are common excipient ingredients in several vaccines, and it has been postulated that patients with alpha-gal allergy might react to these vaccines.”
A clinical analysis of gelatin allergy and determination of its causal relationship to the previous administration of gelatin-containing acellular pertussis vaccine combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids.
Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999.
“Most anaphylactic reactions and some urticarial reactions to gelatin-containing measles, mumps, and rubella monovalent vaccines are associated with IgE-mediated gelatin allergy. DTaP immunization histories suggest that the gelatin-containing DT”
Effects of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis or tetanus vaccination on allergies and allergy-related respiratory symptoms among children and adolescents in the United States.
Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2000
“The odds of having a history of asthma was twice as great among vaccinated subjects than among unvaccinated subjects”
“DTP or tetanus vaccination appears to increase the risk of allergies and related respiratory symptoms in children and adolescents.”
Food allergy to gelatin in children with systemic immediate-type reactions, including anaphylaxis, to vaccines. Allergy Clin Immunol. 1996
“We reconfirmed a strong relationship between systemic immediate-type allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, to vaccines and the presence of specific IgE to gelatin. Moreover, some of the children also had allergic reactions to food gelatin before or after vaccination.”
Gastrointestinal immunopathology and food allergy. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004
“The gastrointestinal immune response thus plays a pivotal role in maintaining protective immunity in health and a critical role in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of clinical disorders associated with FA.”
Infection of human B lymphocytes with MMR vaccine induces IgE class switching.
“Here, we show that infection of a human IgM(+) B cell line with MMR resulted in the expression of germline epsilon transcript. In addition, infection of freshly prepared human PBLs with this vaccine resulted in the expression of mature IgE mRNA transcript. Our data suggest that a potential side effect of vaccination with live attenuated viruses may be an increase in the expression of IgE.”
Is infant immunization a risk factor for childhood asthma or allergy? Epidemiology. 1997
The authors shows a correlation between the diphtheria/pertussis/tetanus (DPT) and polio immunizations and asthma episodes, asthma consultations, and consultations for other allergic illness. These findings do not appear to be due to differential use of health services (although this possibility cannot be excluded) or con-founding by ethnicity, socioeconomic status, parental atopy, or parental smoking.
Pertussis adjuvant prolongs intestinal hypersensitivity. Int Arch Allergy Immunol
“ Our findings indicate nanogram quantities of PT, when administered with a food protein, result in long-term sensitization to the antigen, and altered intestinal neuroimmune function. These data suggest that exposure to bacterial pathogens may prolong the normally transient immune responsiveness to inert food antigens.”
A possible central mechanism in autism spectrum disorders, part 1.
Altern Ther Health Med. 2008
A careful review of ASD cases discloses a number of events that adhere to an immunoexcitotoxic mechanism. This mechanism explains the link between excessive vaccination, use of aluminum and ethylmercury as vaccine adjuvants, food allergies, gut dysbiosis, and abnormal formation of the developing brain.
Potential risk of repeated nasal vaccination that induces allergic reaction with mucosal IgE and airway eosinophilic infiltration in cynomolgus macaques infected with H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. Vaccine. 2017
“On the other hand, eosinophil clusters were observed in the lungs of vaccinated macaques. Although Vac-3-specific IgE antibody and IL-13 levels were decreased after infection compared to those before infection and no anaphylaxis in vaccinated macaques was detected after challenge infection, our results suggest that we have to pay attention to potential allergic responses at repeated nasal vaccination, especially in people who have an airway allergy.”
Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis for a child with severe allergic reaction to rabies vaccine. Vaccin Immunother. 2016
Most adverse events (AEs) during the immunization of rabies vaccine were slight, there was little information about the allergic reaction induced by rabies vaccines and had to stop or change the immunization program. Here, we reported a case that a 4-year-old boy had category II exposure to rabies and showed severe allergic reaction after being immunized with lyophilized purified vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV).
Semple rabies vaccine: presence of myelin basic protein and proteolipid protein and its activity in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Neurol Sci. 1989.
These results suggest that MBP in vaccines may play a decisive role in the production of PVE.
Timing of routine infant vaccinations and risk of food allergy and eczema at one year of age. Allergy, 2016
Delayed DTaP was associated with reduced eczema and reduced use of eczema medication
Administration of aluminium to neonatal mice in vaccine relevant amounts is associated with adverse long term neurological outcomes. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 2013
A correlation between increasing ASD rates and aluminium (Al) adjuvants in common use in paediatric vaccines in several Western countries. The correlation between ASD rate and Al adjuvant amounts appears to be dose-dependent.
Aluminum adjuvant linked to gulf war illness induces motor neuron death in mice. Neuromolecular Medicine, 2007
Young, male colony CD-1 mice were injected with the adjuvants at doses equivalent to those given to US military service personnel. Behavioral testing showed motor deficits in the aluminum treatment group that expressed as a progressive decrease in strength. Significant cognitive deficits were observed in the combined aluminum and squalene group
Aluminum and Alzheimer’s disease: after a century of controversy, is there a plausible link? Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 2011
Experimental evidence has repeatedly demonstrated that chronic Aluminum (Al) intoxication reproduces neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimers’ Disease (AD). Misconceptions about Al bioavailability may have misled scientists regarding the significance of Al in the pathogenesis of AD. The hypothesis that Al significantly contributes to AD is built upon very solid experimental evidence and should not be dismissed. Immediate steps should be taken to lessen human exposure to Al, which may be the single most aggravating and avoidable factor related to AD.
Aluminium and breast cancer: Sources of exposure, tissue measurements and mechanisms of toxicological actions on breast biology Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 2013
The presence of aluminium in the human breast may also alter the breast microenvironment causing disruption to iron metabolism, oxidative damage to cellular components, inflammatory responses and alterations to the motility of cells.
Aluminum hydroxide injections lead to motor deficits and motor neuron degeneration Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 2010
Morin stain detected the presence of aluminum in the cytoplasm of motor neurons with some neurons also testing positive for the presence of hyper-phosphorylated tau protein, a pathological hallmark of various neurological diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal dementia. A second series of experiments was conducted on mice injected with six doses of aluminum hydroxide. Behavioural analyses in these mice revealed significant impairments in a number of motor functions as well as diminished spatial memory capacity. The demonstrated neurotoxicity of aluminum hydroxide and its relative ubiquity as an adjuvant suggest that greater scrutiny by the scientific community is warranted.
Aluminum Vaccine Adjuvants: Are They Safe? Current Medical Chemistry, 2011
Experimental research clearly shows that aluminum adjuvants have a potential to induce serious immunological disorders in humans. In particular, aluminum in adjuvant form carries a risk for autoimmunity, long-term brain inflammation and associated neurological complications and may thus have profound and widespread adverse health consequences
Elevated brain aluminium and early onset Alzheimer’s disease in an individual occupationally exposed to aluminium: a case report. Journal of Medical Case Reports, 2014
A 66-year-old Caucasian man who died with Alzheimer’s disease showed significantly elevated brain aluminium content following occupational exposure to aluminium over a period of 8 years.
Mechanisms of aluminum adjuvant toxicity and autoimmunity in pediatric populations. Lupus. 2012
Aluminum (Al) vaccine adjuvants have been linked to a variety of serious autoimmune and inflammatory conditions (i.e., “ASIA”), yet children are regularly exposed to much higher amounts of Al from vaccines than adults; (iii) it is often assumed that peripheral immune responses do not affect brain function.
Experimental Epilepsy in Monkey Following Multiple Intracerebral injections of Alumina Cream. Journal of Urban Health, 1953
The multiple intracerebral injection of alumina cream (aluminum hydroxide cream) into a principal cerebral sensorimotor cortical area is effective in producing chronic epilepsy in monkeys.
Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity in humans and animals, vaccine adjuvants, and autoimmunity. Immunologic Research, 2013
In young children, a highly significant correlation exists between the number of pediatric aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines administered and the rate of autism spectrum disorders.
Are there negative CNS impacts of aluminum adjuvants used in vaccines and immunotherapy? Immunotherapy, 2014
Autoimmune and inflammatory responses affecting the CNS appear to underlie some forms of neurological disease, including developmental disorders. Aluminum (Al) has been demonstrated to impact the CNS at every level, including by changing gene expression. These outcomes should raise concerns about the increasing use of Al salts as vaccine adjuvants and for the application as more general immune stimulants.
Mechanisms of aluminum adjuvant toxicity and autoimmunity in pediatric populations. Lupus, 2012
When assessing adjuvant toxicity in children, several key points ought to be considered: (i) infants and children should not be viewed as “small adults” with regard to toxicological risk as their unique physiology makes them much more vulnerable to toxic insults; (ii) in adult humans Al vaccine adjuvants have been linked to a variety of serious autoimmune and inflammatory conditions (i.e., “ASIA”), yet children are regularly exposed to much higher amounts of Al from vaccines than adults; (iii) it is often assumed that peripheral immune responses do not affect brain function. However, it is now clearly established that there is a bidirectional neuro-immune cross-talk that plays crucial roles in immunoregulation as well as brain function. In turn, perturbations of the neuro-immune axis have been demonstrated in many autoimmune diseases encompassed in “ASIA” and are thought to be driven by a hyperactive immune response; and (iv) the same components of the neuro-immune axis that play key roles in brain development and immune function are heavily targeted by Al adjuvants.
Autism & Vaccine Studies
A two-phase study evaluating the relationship between Thimerosal-containing vaccine administration and the risk for an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in the United States. Translational Neurodegeneration, 2013
The present study provides new evidence supporting an association between childhood vaccines and the risk of an ASD diagnosis
Do aluminum vaccine adjuvants contribute to the rising prevalence of autism? Elsevier, 2011
The increase in exposure to aluminum adjuvants significantly correlates with the increase in ASD prevalence
What is regressive autism and why does it occur? Is it the consequence of multi-systemic dysfunction affecting the elimination of heavy metals and the ability to regulate neural temperature? North American Journal of Medical Sciences, 2009
There is a compelling argument that the occurrence of regressive autism is attributable to genetic and chromosomal abnormalities, arising from the overuse of vaccines, which subsequently affects the stability and function of the autonomic nervous system…Heavy Metals and Mercury in particular, affects the function of the Central Nervous System.
Thimerosal Exposure and the Role of Sulfation Chemistry and Thiol Availability in Autism. International Journal of Environmental Health and Public Studies, 2013
The emergence of ASD symptoms post-6 months of age temporally follows the administration of many childhood vaccines.
A case series of children with apparent mercury toxic encephalopathies manifesting with clinical symptoms of regressive autistic disorders. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 2007
There was a significant dose-response relationship between the severity of the regressive ASDs observed and the total mercury dose children received from Thimerosal-containing vaccines.
A comprehensive review of mercury provoked autism. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 2008
A review of molecular mechanisms indicates that Hg exposure can induce death, disorganization and/or damage to selected neurons in the brain similar to that seen in recent ASD brain pathology studies.
Theoretical aspects of autism: causes–a review. Journal of Immunotoxicology, 2011
Documented causes of autism include genetic mutations and/or deletions, viral infections, and encephalitis following vaccination.
Autism: a novel form of mercury poisoning. Medical Hypothesis, 2001
A review of medical literature and US government data suggests that: (i) many cases of idiopathic autism are induced by early mercury exposure from thimerosal; (ii) this type of autism represents an unrecognized mercurial syndrome; and (iii) genetic and non-genetic factors establish a predisposition whereby thimerosal’s adverse effects occur only in some children.
A prospective study of thimerosal-containing Rho(D)-immune globulin administration as a risk factor for autistic disorders. The Journal of Maternal Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 2007
The results provide insights into the potential role prenatal mercury exposure may play in some children with ASDs. [Mothers with prenatal mercury were significantly more likely to have children with ASDs].
Hypothesis: conjugate vaccines may predispose children to autism spectrum disorders. Medical Hypothesis, 2011
Conjugate vaccines fundamentally change the manner in which the immune systems of infants and young children function by deviating their immune responses.
The potential importance of steroids in the treatment of autistic spectrum disorders and other disorders involving mercury toxicity. Medical Hypothesis, 2005
There are a number of other diseases that may have a chronic mercury toxicity component, such as Alzheimer’s disease, heart disease, obesity, ALS, asthma, and other various forms of autoimmune disorders.
Reduced levels of mercury in first baby haircuts of autistic children. International Journal Of Toxicology, 2003
Hair mercury levels in the autistic group were significantly higher than control group.
Cultured lymphocytes from autistic children and non-autistic siblings up-regulate heat shock protein RNA in response to thimerosal challenge. Neurotoxicology, 2006
The differences [between autistic and non-autistic siblings] in expression profiles between those cells treated with zinc versus thimerosal were dramatic.
A dose-response relationship between organic mercury exposure from thimerosal-containing vaccines and neurodevelopmental disorders. International Journal Of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2014
The cumulative total dose of Hg exposure from thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine (T-HBV) administered within the first six months of life was calculated. [Significant links were found with: specific developmental delay, tic disorder and hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood]. Cases were significantly more likely than controls to receive increased organic-Hg exposure.
Do aluminum vaccine adjuvants contribute to the rising prevalence of autism? Journal of inorganic biochemistry, 2011
Results show that children from countries with the highest ASD prevalence appear to have the highest exposure to Aluminium from vaccines.
Transcriptomic analyses of neurotoxic effects in mouse brain after intermittent neonatal administration of thimerosal. Toxicology Sciences: An official journal of the society of toxicology, 2014
Results indicate that higher dose of neonatal thimerosal-mercury is capable of inducing long-lasting substantial dysregulation of neurodevelopment, synaptic function, and endocrine system, which could be the causal involvements of autistic-like behavior in mice.
Neurological adverse events associated with vaccination. Current Opinion in Neurology, 2012
The present review summarizes data on neurologic complications following vaccination, and provides evidence that indicates whether they were directly associated with the vaccines. These complications include autism (measles vaccine), multiple sclerosis (hepatitis B vaccine), meningoencephalitis (Japanese encephalitis vaccine), Guillain-Barré syndrome and giant cell arteritis (influenza vaccine), and reactions after exposure to animal rabies vaccine. Seizures and hypotonic/hyporesponsive episodes following pertussis vaccination and potential risks associated with varicella vaccination, as well as vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis following oral poliovirus vaccination, are also described.
A possible central mechanism in autism spectrum disorders, part 1. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 2008
Autoimmune Issues & Vaccine Studies
Evidence that Food Proteins in Vaccines Cause the Development of Food Allergies and Its Implications for Vaccine Policy. Journal of Developing Drugs, 2015
Vaccines contain adjuvants such as pertussis toxins and aluminum compounds that also bias towards allergy. Adjuvants also increase the immunogenicity of injected food proteins. This combination of atopic children and food protein injection along with adjuvants, contributes to millions developing life- threatening food allergies.
Autoimmunity following hepatitis B vaccine as part of the spectrum of ‘Autoimmune (Auto-inflammatory) Syndrome induced by Adjuvants’ (ASIA): Analysis of 93 cases. NCBI, February 2012
Risk factors such as history of autoimmune diseases and the appearance of adverse event(s) during immunization may serve to predict the risk of post-immunization diseases.
Chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia following immunization with the hepatitis B vaccine: another angle of the ‘autoimmune (auto-inflammatory) syndrome induced by adjuvants’ (ASIA). NCBI, 2014
This study suggests that in some cases fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue can be temporally related to immunization, as part of ASIA syndrome. The appearance of adverse event during immunization, the presence of autoimmune susceptibility and higher titers of autoantibodies all can be suggested as risk factors.
Vaccines, adjuvants and autoimmunity. Guimarães LE, et al. Pharmacol Res. 2015.
Adjuvants and infectious agents may exert their immune-enhancing effects through various functional activities, encompassed by the adjuvant effect. These mechanisms are shared by different conditions triggered by adjuvants leading to the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA syndrome). In conclusion, there are several case reports of autoimmune diseases following vaccines.
Protective role of infections on autoimmune diseases. Journal of Autoimmunity, 2001
It is interesting that the frequency of these diseases has been increasing in developed countries over the last 20 years but not in undeveloped ones. (Could this be due to developed countries having a bigger vaccine schedule?)
Epidemiology of autoimmune reactions induced by vaccination. Journal of Autoimmunology, 2001
Evidence for immunizations leading to AID come from several sources including animal studies, single and multiple case reports, and ecologic association.
Vaccination and autoimmunity-‘vaccinosis’: a dangerous liaison? Journal of Autoimmunity, 2000
This similarity may be the trigger to the autoimmune reaction. Other possible mechanisms are discussed. It seems that some autoimmune phenomena are clearly related to immunization (e.g. Guillain-Barre syndrome).
Immunisation triggering rheumatoid arthritis? Annals of Rheumatic Diseases, 1989
HLA-DR class II associations with rubella vaccine-induced joint manifestations. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1998
Logistic regression modelling of DR, treatment, age, time postpartum, and arthropathy revealed that the odds of developing arthropathy was 1.9 times greater (95% CI, 1.07-3.44) after rubella vaccine than placebo.
Patients who develop inflammatory polyarthritis (IP) after immunization are clinically indistinguishable from other patients with IP. British Journal of Rheumatology, 1997
Immunization may thus act as a trigger for rheumatoid arthritis
Vaccination as a triggering agent for the development of rheumatoid arthritis. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases, 2011
Macrophagic myofasciitis lesions assess long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminium hydroxide in muscle. Brain, 2001
We conclude that the Macrophagic myofasciitis lesion is secondary to intramuscular injection of aluminium hydroxide-containing vaccines, shows both long-term persistence of aluminium hydroxide and an ongoing local immune reaction, and is detected in patients with systemic symptoms which appeared subsequently to vaccination.
Psoriatic arthropathy. Irish Medical Journal, 1995
Polysorbate 80 in medical products and nonimmunologic anaphylactoid reactions. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2005
Polysorbate 80 is a ubiquitously used solubilizing agent that can cause severe nonimmunologic anaphylactoid reactions.
Guillain-Barré syndrome–a classical autoimmune disease triggered by infection or vaccination. Israeli E, et al. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2012.
Guillain-Barré syndrome involves genetic and environmental factors, may be triggered by infections or vaccinations
Evolution of multiple sclerosis in France since the beginning of hepatitis B vaccination. Immunologic Research, 2014
Since the implementation of the mass vaccination campaign against hepatitis B in France, the appearance of multiple sclerosis, sometimes occurring in the aftermath of vaccinations, led to the publication of epidemiological international studies. This was also justified by the sharp increase in the annual incidence of multiple sclerosis reported to the French health insurance in the mid-1990s.
Review of the United States universal varicella vaccination program: Herpes zoster incidence rates, cost-effectiveness, and vaccine efficacy based primarily on the Antelope Valley Varicella Active Surveillance Project data. Vaccine, 2013
In the prelicensure era, 95% of adults experienced natural chickenpox (usually as children)-these cases were usually benign and resulted in long-term immunity. Varicella vaccination is less effective than the natural immunity that existed in prevaccine communities. Universal varicella vaccination has not proven to be cost-effective as increased HZ morbidity has disproportionately offset cost savings associated with reductions in varicella disease. Universal varicella vaccination has failed to provide long-term protection from VZV disease.
Hepatitus B Vaccine
Autoimmune hazards of hepatitis B vaccine. Autoimmune Review, 2005
This paper points out that information on the safety of hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) is biased as compared to classical requirements of evidence-based medicine (EBM), as exemplified by a documented selectivity in the presentation or even publication of available clinical or epidemiological data.
Hepatitis B triple series vaccine and developmental disability in US children aged 19 years. Journal Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, 2008
The odds of receiving EIS (special education services) were approximately nine times as great for vaccinated boys (n = 46) as for unvaccinated boys (n = 7), after adjustment for confounders. This study found statistically significant evidence to suggest that boys in United States who were vaccinated with the triple series Hepatitis B vaccine, during the time period in which vaccines were manufactured with thimerosal, were more susceptible to developmental disability than were unvaccinated boys.
Hepatitis B vaccine induces apoptotic death in Hepa16 cells. Apoptosis, 2012
We conclude that exposure of Hepa1-6 cells to a low dose of adjuvanted hepatitis B vaccine leads to loss of mitochondrial integrity, apoptosis induction, and cell death, apoptosis effect was observed also in C2C12 mouse myoblast cell line after treated with low dose of vaccine
Recombinant hepatitis B vaccine and the risk of multiple sclerosis. Neurology Journal of the American Academy of Neurology, 2004
These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that immunization with the recombinant hepatitis B vaccine is associated with an increased risk of MS.
Rheumatic disorders developed after hepatitis B vaccination. Oxford Journals Medicine & Health Rheumatology, 1999
Hepatitis B vaccine might be followed by various rheumatic conditions and might trigger the onset of underlying inflammatory or autoimmune rheumatic diseases.
A new case of reactive arthritis after hepatitis B vaccination. Clinical & Experimental Rheumatology 1993
Hepatitis B vaccine associated with erythema nodosum and polyarthritis. British Medical Journal, 1990
We describe a patient who developed erythema nodosum and polyarthritis after the first dose of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine.
Acute sero-positive rheumatoid arthritis occurring after hepatitis vaccination. British Journal of Rheumatology, 1994
Arthritis after hepatitis B vaccination. Report of three cases. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, 1995
We report on three cases of vaccination-induced arthritis with different resulting disease. Two cases show the pattern of reactive arthritis. In the third case onset of rheumatoid arthritis was triggered by hepatitis vaccination. These three cases show that arthritis after hepatitis B vaccination probably is more common than reported so far.
Erosive polyarthritis triggered by vaccination against hepatitis B. Presse Medicale, 1997
A one year followup of chronic arthritis following rubella and hepatitis B vaccination based upon analysis of the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) database. Clinical & Experimental Rheumatology, 2002
This study revealed that adult rubella and adult hepatitis B vaccines were statistically associated with chronic arthritis which persisted for at least one year. The etiology for these adverse reactions may involve autoimmune mechanisms.
The development of rheumatoid arthritis after recombinant hepatitis B vaccination. The Journal of Rheumatology, 1998
Recombinant hepatitis B vaccine may trigger the development of RA in MHC class II genetically susceptible individuals.
Rheumatic disorders developed after hepatitis B vaccination. Rheumatology, 1999
Hepatitis B vaccine might be followed by various rheumatic conditions and might trigger the onset of underlying inflammatory or autoimmune rheumatic diseases.
Hepatitis B vaccination and arthritic adverse reactions: a followup analysis of the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) database. Clinical & Experimental Rheumatology, 2002
Yeast-derived hepatitis B vaccine and yeast sensitivity. Lancet, 1989
Reactions to thimerosal in hepatitis B vaccines. Dermatologic Clinics, 1990
Hypersensitivity to thimerosal in vaccines has been reported to induce persistent local reactions, urticarial and generalized exanthematic eruptions, and, in the case of the hepatitis B vaccine, urticaria with asthma. The authors describe two cases of extensive reactions, one in a patient who did not form antibodies to the principal vaccine antigen. Although not all thimerosal-sensitive patients develop adverse reactions to vaccines containing this material, there is a potential risk, and the reactions can be very long lasting.
A causal association between Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine and diabetes. Autoimmunity, 2003
Association between type 1 diabetes and Hib vaccine. British Medical Journal, 1999
Study on the effect of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine on type 1 diabetes and found that the data supports a causal relation. Furthermore, the potential risk of the vaccine exceeds the potential benefit.
Nonfebrile Seizures after Mumps, Measles, Rubella, and Varicella Zoster Virus Combination Vaccination with Detection of Measles Virus RNA in Serum, Throat, and Urine. Clinical and Vaccine Immuniology, 2013
We report the case of a child presenting with nonfebrile seizures 6 and 13 days after the first vaccination with a measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (MMRV) combination vaccine
Two successive outbreaks of mumps in Nova Scotia among vaccinated adolescents and young adults. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 2006
The predominance in these outbreaks of infected people of university age not only highlights an environment with potential for increased transmission but also raises questions about the efficacy of the MMR vaccine.
Waning of Maternal Antibodies Against Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella in Communities With Contrasting Vaccination Coverage. Oxford Journals Medicine & Health The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2013
Children of mothers vaccinated against measles and, possibly, rubella have lower concentrations of maternal antibodies and lose protection by maternal antibodies at an earlier age than children of mothers in communities that oppose vaccination. This increases the risk of disease transmission in highly vaccinated populations.
Mumps vaccination coverage and vaccine effectiveness in a large outbreak among college students–Iowa, 2006. Vaccine 2008
A large mumps outbreak occurred despite high two-dose vaccination coverage in a population most of whom had received the second dose >10 years before.
Major measles epidemic in the region of Quebec despite a 99% vaccine coverage. Canadian Journal of Public Health. 1991
The vaccination coverage among cases was at least 84.5%. Vaccination coverage for the total population was 99.0%. Incomplete vaccination coverage is not a valid explanation for the Quebec City measles outbreak.
Acellular pertussis vaccines protect against disease but fail to prevent infection and transmission in a nonhuman primate model. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences, 2013
Baboons vaccinated with aP were not protected from colonization, did not clear the infection faster than naïve animals, and readily transmitted B. pertussis to unvaccinated contacts.
Unexpectedly Limited Durability of Immunity Following Acellular Pertussis Vaccination in PreAdolescents in a North American Outbreak. Oxford Journals Medicine & Health Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2012
Our data suggests that the current schedule of acellular pertussis vaccine doses is insufficient to prevent outbreaks of pertussis.
Whooping Cough Outbreaks Among Fully Vaccinated. Office of Medical and Scientific Justice, 2012
CDC data shows 84 percent of children under the age of three have received at least four DTaP shots and yet, despite high vaccination rates, whooping cough still keeps circulating, largely among the fully vaccinated.
Medulloblastoma in childhood: an epidemiological study. Journal of Neurosurgery, 1984
Correspondingly, an excessive number of children born in the period 1954 to 1958 have developed medulloblastomas. A relationship to polio vaccine contaminated with SV40 virus may exist. Children with medulloblastomas had an increased number of immediate family members with brain tumors, leukemia, and childhood cancer when compared to controls.
Poliovirus Vaccination during Pregnancy, Maternal Seroconversion to Simian Virus 40, and Risk of Childhood Cancer. Oxford Journals Medicine & Health American Journal of Epidemiology
Those children whose mothers had received pre-1963 poliovirus vaccine during pregnancy (22.5% of the children) had an increased incidence of neural tumors and hematologic malignancies.
Simian Virus 40 Infection of Humans. Journal of Virology, 2003
SV40 DNA was detected on rare occasions, usually in brain tumors, using relatively low-sensitivity Southern hybridization techniques, immunostaining for LT, and electron microscopy.
Premature babies have higher risk of sepsis and cardiorespiratory events after vaccination in the NICU. JAMA Pediatrics, 2015
This study reports a significant increase in the incidence of sepsis evaluations, respiratory support, and intubation after immunization of premature babies in the NICU. The findings of this study confirm what a number of other retrospective studies have found—that low birth weight infants appear to have an increase in cardiorespiratory events and sepsis evaluations after vaccination. The main strength of this study and what makes it unique is its large sample size of infants born at less than 28 weeks gestation.
Sudden Infant Death Studies
Sudden infant death following hexavalent vaccination: a neuropathologic study. Current Medicinal Chemistry. 2014.
We hypothesize that vaccine components could have a direct role in sparking off a lethal outcome in vulnerable babies. In conclusion, we sustain the need that deaths occurring in a short space of time after hexavalent vaccination are appropriately investigated and submitted to a post-mortem examination particularly of the autonomic nervous system by an expert pathologist to objectively evaluate the possible causative role of the vaccine in SIDS.
Administration of thimerosal to infant rats increases overflow of glutamate and aspartate in the prefrontal cortex: protective role of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Neurochemical Research. 2012
Since excessive accumulation of extracellular glutamate is linked with excitotoxicity, our data imply that neonatal exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccines might induce excitotoxic brain injuries, leading to neurodevelopmental disorders.
Comparison of Blood and Brain Mercury Levels in Infant Monkeys Exposed to Methylmercury or Vaccines Containing Thimerosal. Environmental Health Perspectives, August 2005
Brain concentrations of total Hg were significantly lower by approximately 3-fold for the thimerosal-exposed monkeys when compared with the MeHg infants, whereas the average brain-to-blood concentration ratio was slightly higher for the thimerosal-exposed monkeys.
Integrating experimental (in vitro and in vivo) neurotoxicity studies of low-dose thimerosal relevant to vaccines. Neurochemical Research. 2011
Thimerosal at concentrations relevant for infants’ exposure (in vaccines) is toxic to cultured human-brain cells and to laboratory animals.
Lasting neuropathological changes in rat brain after intermittent neonatal administration of thimerosal. Folia Neuropathologia, 2010
Findings document neurotoxic effects of thimerosal, at doses equivalent to those used in infant vaccines or higher, in developing rat brain, suggesting likely involvement of this mercurial in neurodevelopmental disorders.
Maternal thimerosal exposure results in aberrant cerebellar oxidative stress, thyroid hormone metabolism, and motor behavior in rat pups; sex and strain dependent effects. Cerebellum. 2012
TM exposure resulted in a delayed startle response in SD (Sprague-Dawley) neonates and decreased motor learning in SHR (spontaneously hypertensive rats). TM exposure also resulted in a significant increase in cerebellar levels of the oxidative stress marker 3-nitrotyrosine in SHR female and SD male neonates.
Neonatal administration of thimerosal causes persistent changes in mu opioid receptors in the rat brain. Neurochemical Research. 2010
These data document that exposure to thimerosal during early postnatal life produces lasting alterations in the densities of brain opioid receptors along with other neuropathological changes, which may disturb brain development.
Neurodevelopmental disorders following thimerosal containing childhood immunizations: a followup analysis International Journal of Toxicology, 2004
It was observed, even though the media has reported a potential association between autism and thimerosal exposure, that the other NDs analyzed in this assessment of the VAERS had significantly higher ORs than autism following thimerosal-containing DTaP vaccines in comparison to thimerosal-free DTaP vaccines. The present study provides additional epidemiological evidence supporting previous epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence that administration of thimerosal-containing vaccines in the United States resulted in a significant number of children developing NDs.
Persistent behavioral impairments and alterations of brain dopamine system after early postnatal administration of thimerosal in rats. Behavioural Brain Research, 2011
These data document that early postnatal THIM administration causes lasting neurobehavioral impairments and neurochemical alterations in the brain, dependent on dose and sex. If similar changes occur in THIM/mercurial-exposed children, they could contribute do neurodevelopmental disorders.
Thimerosal induces neuronal cell apoptosis by causing cytochrome c and apoptosisinducing factor release from mitochondria. International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 2006
Our data suggest that thimerosal causes apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells by changing the mitochondrial microenvironment.
Thimerosal Exposure and the Role of Sulfation Chemistry and Thiol Availability in Autism International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2013
TM is an organomercurial compound (49.55% Hg by weight) that has been, and continues to be, used as a preservative in many childhood vaccines, particularly in developing countries. Thiol-modulating mechanisms affecting the cytotoxicity of TM have been identified. Importantly, the emergence of ASD symptoms post-6 months of age temporally follows the administration of many childhood vaccines.
Yellow Fever Vaccine
Review of the risks and benefits of yellow fever vaccination including some new analyses. Expert Review of Vaccines. 2012
This study shows the risk of DEATH from the Yellow Fever vaccine is higher than risk of contracting yellow fever as a traveller.
Occurrence of Autoimmune Diseases Related to the Vaccine against Yellow Fever. Autoimmune Disease 2014
This systematic review aims to identify the occurrence of autoinflammatory diseases related to Yellow Fever vaccine administration.
Yellow Fever Virus Vaccine–associated Deaths in Young Women Emergence of Infectious Disease. 2011
A review of published and other data suggested a higher than expected number of deaths from yellow fever vaccine–associated viscerotropic disease among women 19–34 years of age without known immunodeficiency.
Adverse events associated with 17D-derived yellow fever vaccination–United States, 2001-2002. MMWR Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report. 2002
This report summarizes the preliminary surveillance findings, including two new suspected cases of YEL-AVD and four suspected cases of YEL-associated neurotropic disease (YEL-AND) (previously called postvaccinal encephalitis)
Yellow fever vaccines and international travelers. Expert Review of Vaccines. 2008
Reports of severe and previously unrecognized significant adverse events linked to the 17D vaccine have caused major concern.
Yellow fever vaccine: an updated assessment of advanced age as a risk factor for serious adverse events. Vaccine. 2005
The scientific community has become aware of 14 reports of yellow fever vaccine (YEL)-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) cases and four reports of YEL-associated neurotropic disease (YEL-AND) worldwide, changing our understanding of the risks of the vaccine. Based on 722 adverse event reports after YEL submitted to the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System in 1990-2002, we updated the estimates of the age-adjusted reporting rates of serious adverse events, YEL-AVD and YEL-AND.
Vaccine Ingredients Studies
Temporal Association of Certain Neuropsychiatric Disorders Following Vaccination of Children and Adolescents: A Pilot Case–Control Study. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 2017
New groundbreaking study shows connection between vaccines and OCD, tics, anxiety and anorexia
Adverse events following immunization with vaccines containing adjuvants. Immunologic Research, 2013
Forty-three out of 120 patients with moderate or severe manifestations following immunization were hospitalized from 2008 to 2011. All patients fulfilled at least 2 major and 1 minor criteria suggested by Shoenfeld and Agmon-Levin for ASIA diagnosis. The most frequent clinical findings were pyrexia 68%, arthralgias 47%, cutaneous disorders 33%, muscle weakness 16% and myalgias 14%. Three patients had diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome, one patient had Adult-Still’s disease 3 days after vaccination. A total of 76% of the events occurred in the first 3 days post-vaccination. Two patients with previous autoimmune disease showed severe adverse reactions with the reactivation of their illness. Minor local reactions were present in 49% of patients. Vaccines containing adjuvants may be associated with an increased risk of autoimmune/inflammatory adverse events following immunization.
Vaccination and herd immunity: what more do we know? Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, 2012
There have been some recent conceptual developments in vaccine ‘herd immunity’ or ‘herd protection’ that address the complexities of imperfect immunity,
Investigating Viruses in Cells Used to Make Vaccines; and Evaluating the Potential Threat Posed by Transmission of Viruses to Humans. FDA.gov
In some cases the cell lines that are used (in vaccines) might be tumorigenic, that is, they form tumors when injected into rodents. Some of these tumor-forming cell lines may contain cancer-causing viruses that are not actively reproducing.
Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Formaldehyde: A Systematic Review. Mutation Research, 2011
Meta-analysis showing that formaldehyde — a known carcinogen and and ingredient in most childhood vaccines — exposure causes reproductive and developmental harm, including spontaneous abortions in pregnancy at low doses. Most studies included are in animals that can have similar drug reactions as humans because human toxicity studies are not ethical.
Vaccine Shedding Studie
Detection of fecal shedding of rotavirus vaccine in infants following their first dose of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine. Vaccine. 2011
Rotavirus antigen was detected as early as post-vaccination day 3 and as late as day 9, with peak numbers of shedding on post-vaccination days 6 through 8. Vaccine-type rotavirus was detected in all 50 antigen-positive specimens and 8 of 8 antigen-negative specimens.
Rotavirus vaccines: viral shedding and risk of transmission. Lancet Infect Dis. 2008
Transmission of vaccine virus strains from vaccinated children to unvaccinated contacts risks of vaccine-derived disease in immunocompromised contacts.
Sibling Transmission of Vaccine-Derived Rotavirus (RotaTeq) Associated With Rotavirus Gastroenteritis. Pediatrics, 2010
We document here the occurrence of vaccine-derived rotavirus (RotaTeq [Merck and Co, Whitehouse Station, NJ]) transmission from a vaccinated infant to an older, unvaccinated sibling, resulting in symptomatic rotavirus gastroenteritis that required emergency department care.
Pertussis Infection in Fully Vaccinated Children in Day-Care Centers, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2000
Vaccinated adolescents and adults may serve as reservoirs for silent infection and become potential transmitters to unprotected infants
The Case against Universal Varicella Vaccination International Journal of Toxicology, 2006
With regard to the reporting in VAERS, the timing of a disease closely following a vaccination and lack of any other obvious cause are most often the only criteria of potential significance for a suspected adverse reaction.
Autism & Vaccine Studies
A Positive Association found between Autism Prevalence and Childhood Vaccination uptake across the U.S. Population. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 2011
Abnormal measles-mumps-rubella antibodies and CNS autoimmunity in children with autism. Journal of Biomedical Science, 2002
Autism: A Brain Disorder, or A Disorder That Affects the Brain? Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 2005
B-Lymphocytes from a Population of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Unaffected Siblings Exhibit Hypersensitivity to Thimerosal Journal of Toxicology, 2013
Blood Levels of Mercury Are Related to Diagnosis of Autism: A Reanalysis of an Important Data Set Journal of Child Neurology, 2007
California’s Autism Increase Not Due to Better Counting, Diagnosis Journal of Epidemiology, 2009 UC Davis Health System
Detection and sequencing of measles virus from peripheral mononuclear cells from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and autism. Dig Dis Science, 2000
Developmental Regression and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a Child With Autism Journal of Child Neurology, 2006
Do aluminum vaccine adjuvants contribute to the rising prevalence of autism? Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 2011
Elevated levels of measles antibodies in children with autism. Pediatric Neurology, 2003
Emperical Data Confirms Autism Symptoms Related to Aluminum and Acetominophen Exposure Entropy, 2012
Environmental mercury release, special education rates, and autism disorder: an ecological study of Texas Health Place, 2006
Evidence of Toxicity, Oxidative Stress, and Neuronal Insult in Autism Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 2006
Hepatitis B vaccination of male neonates and autism diagnosis, NHIS 19972002. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 2010
Hypothesis: conjugate vaccines may predispose children to autism spectrum disorders. Medical Hypotheses, 2011
A two-phase study evaluating the relationship between Thimerosal-containing vaccine administration and the risk for an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in the United States.
A positive association found between autism prevalence and childhood vaccination uptake across the U.S. population.
Commentary–Controversies surrounding mercury in vaccines: autism denial as impediment to universal immunisation.
Methodological issues and evidence of malfeasance in research purporting to show thimerosal in vaccines is safe.
Abnormal measles-mumps-rubella antibodies and CNS autoimmunity in children with autism.
Hepatitis B vaccination of male neonates and autism diagnosis, NHIS 1997-2002.
Do aluminum vaccine adjuvants contribute to the rising prevalence of autism?
What is regressive autism and why does it occur? Is it the consequence of multi-systemic dysfunction affecting the elimination of heavy metals and the ability to regulate neural temperature?
A case series of children with apparent mercury toxic encephalopathies manifesting with clinical symptoms of regressive autistic disorders.
A comprehensive review of mercury provoked autism.
A comprehensive review of mercury provoked autism.
Thimerosal Exposure and the Role of Sulfation Chemistry and Thiol Availability in Autism
B-Lymphocytes from a Population of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Unaffected Siblings Exhibit Hypersensitivity to Thimerosal
Cause of vaccine associated measles five weeks post immunization. British Columbia, Canada, 2013
Detection of measles virus RNA in urine specimens from vaccine recipients. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1995
Failure to reach the goal of measles elimination. Apparent paradox of measles infections in immunized persons. Arch Intern Med, 1994
Outbreak of Measles Among Persons With Prior Evidence of Immunity, New York City. Oxford Journals, 2010
Horizontal transmission of the Leningrad-3 live attenuated mumps vaccine virus. Vaccine, 2006
Transmission of mumps virus from mumps vaccinated individuals to close contacts Vaccine, 2011
Mumps vaccine virus transmission. Vopr Virusol, 2013
Impact of environmental factors on the prevalence of autistic disorder after 1979 Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology, July 2014
Measles-mumps-rubella vaccination timing and autism among young African American boys: a reanalysis of CDC data. Transl Neurodegener, 2014
Metabolic biomarkers of increased oxidative stress and impaired methylation capacity in children with autism American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, December 2004
Neuroglial Activation and Neuro-inflammation in the Brain of Patients with Autism Annals of Neurology, Feb 2005
Oxidative Stress in Autism: Elevated Cerebellar 3-nitrotyrosine Levels American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 2008
Porphyrinuria in childhood autistic disorder: Implications for environmental toxicity Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 2006
Possible Immunological Disorders in Autism: Concomitant Autoimmunity and Immune Tolerance The Egyptian Journal of Immunology, 2006
Reduced levels of mercury in first baby haircuts of autistic children. International Journal of Toxicology, 2003
Serological association of measles virus and human herpesvirus-6 with brain autoantibodies in autism. Clin Immunol Immunopathol, 1998
Sorting out the spinning of autism: heavy metals and the question of incidence Acta Neurobiol Exp, 2010
Vaccines and Regressive Autism North American Journal of Medical Sciences, July 2009
Validation of the Phenomenon of Autistic Regression Using Home Videotapes Archives of General Psychiatry, 2005
What’s going on? The question of time trends in autism. Public Health Rep. 2004
What is regressive autism and why does it occur? Is it the consequence of multi systemic dysfunction affecting the elimination of heavy metals and the ability to regulate neural temperature? North American Journal of Medical Science, 2009
News Report: CDC Admits Vaccines Can in Some Cases Trigger Autism
News Report: Where are The Autistic Amish? CBS Reporter Sharyl Attkisson, July 2014
Theoretical aspects of autism: causes–a review.
Conjugate vaccines and autism.
Autism: a novel form of mercury poisoning.
A prospective study of thimerosal-containing Rho(D)-immune globulin administration as a risk factor for autistic disorders.
Hypothesis: conjugate vaccines may predispose children to autism spectrum disorders.
The potential importance of steroids in the treatment of autistic spectrum disorders and other disorders involving mercury toxicity.
Reduced levels of mercury in first baby haircuts of autistic children.
Cultured lymphocytes from autistic children and non-autistic siblings up-regulate heat shock protein RNA in response to thimerosal challenge.
A possible central mechanism in autism spectrum disorders, part 1.
The role of mercury in the pathogenesis of autism.
Transcriptomic analyses of neurotoxic effects in mouse brain after intermittent neonatal administration of thimerosal.
A dose-response relationship between organic mercury exposure from thimerosal-containing vaccines and neurodevelopmental disorders.