Administration of thimerosal to infant rats increases overflow of glutamate and aspartate in the prefrontal cortex: protective role of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Neurochemical Research. 2012

Since excessive accumulation of extracellular glutamate is linked with excitotoxicity, our data imply that neonatal exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccines might induce excitotoxic brain injuries, leading to neurodevelopmental disorders.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22015977


Comparison of Blood and Brain Mercury Levels in Infant Monkeys Exposed to Methylmercury or Vaccines Containing Thimerosal. Environmental Health Perspectives, August 2005

Brain concentrations of total Hg were significantly lower by approximately 3-fold for the thimerosal-exposed monkeys when compared with the MeHg infants, whereas the average brain-to-blood concentration ratio was slightly higher for the thimerosal-exposed monkeys.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16079072


Integrating experimental (in vitro and in vivo) neurotoxicity studies of low-dose thimerosal relevant to vaccines. Neurochemical Research. 2011

Thimerosal at concentrations relevant for infants’ exposure (in vaccines) is toxic to cultured human-brain cells and to laboratory animals.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21350943


Lasting neuropathological changes in rat brain after intermittent neonatal administration of thimerosal. Folia Neuropathologia, 2010

Findings document neurotoxic effects of thimerosal, at doses equivalent to those used in infant vaccines or higher, in developing rat brain, suggesting likely involvement of this mercurial in neurodevelopmental disorders.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21225508


Maternal thimerosal exposure results in aberrant cerebellar oxidative stress, thyroid hormone metabolism, and motor behavior in rat pups; sex and strain dependent effects. Cerebellum. 2012

TM exposure resulted in a delayed startle response in SD (Sprague-Dawley) neonates and decreased motor learning in SHR (spontaneously hypertensive rats). TM exposure also resulted in a significant increase in cerebellar levels of the oxidative stress marker 3-nitrotyrosine in SHR female and SD male neonates.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22015705


Neonatal administration of thimerosal causes persistent changes in mu opioid receptors in the rat brain. Neurochemical Research. 2010

These data document that exposure to thimerosal during early postnatal life produces lasting alterations in the densities of brain opioid receptors along with other neuropathological changes, which may disturb brain development.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20803069


Neurodevelopmental disorders following thimerosal containing childhood immunizations: a followup analysis International Journal of Toxicology, 2004

It was observed, even though the media has reported a potential association between autism and thimerosal exposure, that the other NDs analyzed in this assessment of the VAERS had significantly higher ORs than autism following thimerosal-containing DTaP vaccines in comparison to thimerosal-free DTaP vaccines. The present study provides additional epidemiological evidence supporting previous epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence that administration of thimerosal-containing vaccines in the United States resulted in a significant number of children developing NDs.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15764492


Persistent behavioral impairments and alterations of brain dopamine system after early postnatal administration of thimerosal in rats. Behavioural Brain Research, 2011

These data document that early postnatal THIM administration causes lasting neurobehavioral impairments and neurochemical alterations in the brain, dependent on dose and sex. If similar changes occur in THIM/mercurial-exposed children, they could contribute do neurodevelopmental disorders.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21549155


Thimerosal induces neuronal cell apoptosis by causing cytochrome c and apoptosisinducing factor release from mitochondria. International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 2006

Our data suggest that thimerosal causes apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells by changing the mitochondrial microenvironment.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16273274


Thimerosal Exposure and the Role of Sulfation Chemistry and Thiol Availability in Autism International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2013

TM is an organomercurial compound (49.55% Hg by weight) that has been, and continues to be, used as a preservative in many childhood vaccines, particularly in developing countries. Thiol-modulating mechanisms affecting the cytotoxicity of TM have been identified. Importantly, the emergence of ASD symptoms post-6 months of age temporally follows the administration of many childhood vaccines.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3774468/


A two-phase study evaluating the relationship between Thimerosal-containing vaccine administration and the risk for an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in the United States

Infants who received vaccines containing mercury had significantly increased odds of being diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24354891


Increased risk of developmental neurologic impairment after high exposure to Thimerosal-containing vaccine in first month of life 

Infants who received vaccines containing mercury developed speech disorders, sleep disorders and autism. [Unpublished study sponsored by the CDC.] http://www.thinktwice.com/CDC_quashed_study.pdf


Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccination and the risk for diagnosed specific delays in development in the United States: a case-control study in the vaccine safety datalink

The present study supports an association between increasing organic-mercury exposure from Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines and the subsequent risk of specific delays in development among males and females.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25489565


Neonatal exposure to Thimerosal from vaccines and child development in the first 3 years of life

Psychomotor development — the ability to crawl, walk, and run — is adversely affected by neonatal exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccines.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23069197


Hepatitis B triple series vaccine and developmental disability in US children aged 1–9 years

This study found statistically significant evidence to suggest that boys in United States who were vaccinated with the triple series Hepatitis B vaccine, during the time period in which vaccines were manufactured with thimerosal, were more susceptible to developmental disability than were unvaccinated boys.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02772240701806501?journalCode=gtec20


Methodological issues and evidence of malfeasance in research purporting to show thimerosal in vaccines is safe

This is puzzling because, in a study conducted directly by CDC epidemiologists, a 7.6-fold increased risk of autism from exposure to Thimerosal during infancy was found.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24995277


Thimerosal: clinical, epidemiologic and biochemical studies

The culmination of the research that examines the effects of Thimerosal in humans indicates that it is a poison at minute levels with a plethora of deleterious consequences, even at the levels currently administered in vaccines.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25708367


Delayed acquisition of neonatal reflexes in newborn primates receiving a thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine: influence of gestational age and birth weight

Interaction models indicated there were various interactions between exposure, GA, and BW and that inclusion of the relevant interaction terms significantly improved model fit. This, in turn, indicated that lower BW and/or lower GA exacerbated the adverse effects following vaccine exposure.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20711932


Thimerosal exposure in infants and neurodevelopmental disorders: an assessment of computerized medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink

Consistent significantly increased rate ratios were observed for autism, autism spectrum disorders, tics, attention deficit disorder, and emotional disturbances with Hg exposure from TCVs. By contrast, none of the control outcomes had significantly increased rate ratios with Hg exposure from TCVs.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18482737


Neurodevelopmental disorders after thimerosal-containing vaccines: a brief communication

An association between neurodevelopmental disorders and thimerosal-containing DTaP vaccines was found
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12773696


Alkyl Mercury-Induced Toxicity: Multiple Mechanisms of Action

“There are a number of mechanisms by which alkylmercury compounds cause toxic action in the body. Collectively, published studies reveal that there are some similarities between the mechanisms of the toxic action of the mono-alkyl mercury compounds methylmercury (MeHg) and ethylmercury (EtHg).” Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27161558/


An assessment of thimerosal use in childhood vaccines.

“Limited data on toxicity from low-dose exposures to ethylmercury are available, but toxicity may be similar to that of methylmercury. Chronic, low-dose methylmercury exposure may cause subtle neurologic abnormalities.” Pediatrics 2001
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/11331700


Are toxic biometals destroying your children’s future?

“Cadmium, arsenic, lead, and mercury have been linked to autism, attention deficit disorder, mental retardation and death of children. Mercury in thimerosal found in many vaccines and flu shots contributes significantly to these problems. Decomposition of the thimerosal can produce more toxic compounds, either methylethylmercury or diethylmercury, in the body. These compounds have a toxicity level similar to dimethylmercury. Within the human body, a mitochondrial disorder may release the more toxic form of mercury internally. Young children and pregnant women must minimize internal exposure to the vaccines and flu shots containing mercury.” BioMetals 2009
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19205900/


Autism: a novel form of mercury poisoning.

Cadmium, arsenic, lead, and mercury have been linked to autism, attention deficit disorder, mental retardation and death of children. Mercury in thimerosal found in many vaccines and flu shots contributes significantly to these problems.” Medical Hypotheses 2001
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11339848


B-Lymphocytes from a Population of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Unaffected Siblings Exhibit Hypersensitivity to Thimerosal

“The role of thimerosal containing vaccines in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been an area of intense debate, as has the presence of mercury dental amalgams and fish ingestion by pregnant mothers.” Journal of Toxicology 2013
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3697751/


A case series of children with apparent mercury toxic encephalopathies manifesting with clinical symptoms of regressive autistic disorders

“. Eight of nine patients (one patient was found to have an ASD due to Rett’s syndrome) (a) had regressive ASDs; (b) had elevated levels of androgens; (c) excreted significant amounts of mercury post chelation challenge; (d) had biochemical evidence of decreased function in their glutathione pathways; (e) had no known significant mercury exposure except from Thimerosal-containing vaccines/Rho(D)-immune globulin preparations; and (f) had alternate causes for their regressive ASDs ruled out.” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A 2007
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17454560/


Commentary–Controversies surrounding mercury in vaccines: autism denial as impediment to universal immunisation.

“Thompson first told Dr S Hooker, a researcher on autism, about the manipulation of the data. Hooker analysed the raw data from the CDC study afresh. He confirmed that the risk of autism among African American children vaccinated before the age of 2 years was 340% that of those vaccinated later.” Indian Journal of Medical Ethics 2014
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25377033/


A comprehensive review of mercury provoked autism

“Emerging evidence supports the theory that some autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may result from a combination of genetic/biochemical susceptibility, specifically a reduced ability to excrete mercury (Hg), and exposure to Hg at critical developmental periods.” Indian Journal of Medical Research 2008  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19106436/


Cultured lymphocytes from autistic children and non-autistic siblings up-regulate heat shock protein RNA in response to thimerosal challenge

“This potential deficit, coupled with the similarity in clinical presentations of autism and some heavy metal toxicities, has led to the suggestion that heavy metal poisoning might play a role in the etiology of autism in uniquely susceptible individuals. Thimerosal, an anti-microbial preservative previously added routinely to childhood multi-dose vaccines, is composed of 49.6% ethyl mercury.” Neurotoxicology 2006
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16870260


A dose-response relationship between organic mercury exposure from thimerosal-containing vaccines and neurodevelopmental disorders

“A hypothesis testing case-control study evaluated concerns about the toxic effects of organic-mercury (Hg) exposure from thimerosal-containing (49.55% Hg by weight) vaccines on the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs). Automated medical records were examined to identify cases and controls enrolled from their date-of-birth (1991-2000) in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) project.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2014
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25198681/


Environmental risk factors for autism: an evidence-based review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses

“Current evidence suggests that several environmental factors including vaccination, maternal smoking, thimerosal exposure, and most likely assisted reproductive technologies are unrelated to risk of ASD.” Molecular Autism Brain, Cognition and Behavior 2017
https://molecularautism.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13229-017-0121-4


An evaluation of the effects of thimerosal on neurodevelopmental disorders reported following DTP and Hib vaccines in comparison to DTPH vaccine in the United States.

“Significantly increased odds ratios for autism, speech disorders, mental retardation, infantile spasms, and thinking abnormalities reported to VAERS were found following DTP vaccines in comparison to DTPH vaccines with minimal bias or systematic error.” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 2006
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16766480


Increased blood mercury levels in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

“These results demonstrate elevated blood levels of mercury in AD {Alzheimer’s disease}, and they suggest that this increase of mercury levels is associated with high CSF levels of A beta, whereas tau levels were unrelated. Possible explanations of increased blood mercury levels in AD include yet unidentified environmental sources or release from brain tissue with the advance in neuronal death.” Journal of Neural Transmission 1998
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/9588761/


Increased risk for an atypical autism diagnosis following Thimerosal-containing vaccine exposure in the United States: A prospective longitudinal case-control study in the Vaccine Safety Datalink. (2017)

“Cases diagnosed with atypical autism were statistically significantly more likely to have received greater overall and dose-dependent exposures to Hg from TM-HepB vaccines administered within the first month of life, first two months of life, and first six months of life than the controls.” Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28595786/


Mercury and autism: accelerating evidence?

“Promising treatments of autism involve detoxification of mercury, and supplementation of deficient metabolites.” Neuro Endocrinology Letters 2005
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16264412/


Mercury as an environmental stimulus in the development of autoimmunity – A systematic review

“Autoimmune diseases result from an interplay of genetic predisposition and factors which stimulate the onset of disease. Mercury (Hg), a well-established toxicant, is an environmental factor reported to be linked with autoimmunity.” Autoimmunity Reviews 2007
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27666813/


Metal-induced inflammation triggers fibromyalgia in metal-allergic patients.

“CONCLUSION: Metal allergy is frequent in FM {Fibromyalgia} patients. The reduction of metal exposure resulted in improved health in the majority of metal-sensitized patients. This suggests that metal-induced inflammation might be an important risk factor in a subset of patients with FM.” Neuro Endocrinology Letters 2013
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24378456/


Neurodevelopmental disorders, maternal Rh-negativity, and Rho(D) immune globulins: a multi-center assessment.

“RESULTS: There were significant and comparable increases in maternal Rh-negativity among children with NDs (Clinic: A=24.2%), autism spectrum disorders (Clinic: A=28.3%, B=25.3%), and attention-deficit-disorder/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder (Clinic: A=26.3%) observed at both clinics in comparison to both control groups (Clinic: A=12.1%, B=13.9%) employed. Children with NDs born post-2001 had a maternal Rh-negativity frequency (13.6%) similar to controls.” Neuro Endocrinology Letters 2008
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18404135/


A possible central mechanism in autism spectrum disorders, part 1

The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of related neurodevelopmental disorders that have been increasing in incidence since the 1980s. Despite a considerable amount of data being collected from cases, a central mechanism has not been offered. A careful review of ASD cases discloses a number of events that adhere to an immunoexcitotoxic mechanism. This mechanism explains the link between excessive vaccination, use of aluminum and ethylmercury as vaccine adjuvants, food allergies, gut dysbiosis, and abnormal formation of the developing brain.Alternative Therapies In Health And Medicine 2008
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19043938


The potential importance of steroids in the treatment of autistic spectrum disorders and other disorders involving mercury toxicity.

“Recently emerging evidence suggests that mercury, especially from childhood vaccines, appears to be a factor in the development of the autistic disorders, and that autistic children have higher than normal body-burdens of mercury. In considering mercury toxicity, it has previously been shown that testosterone significantly potentates mercury toxicity, whereas estrogen is protective.” Medical Hypotheses 2005
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15780490


A prospective study of thimerosal-containing Rho(D)-immune globulin administration as a risk factor for autistic disorders

“CONCLUSION:The results provide insights into the potential role prenatal mercury exposure may play in some children with ASDs.” The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine 2007
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17674242


The Putative Role of Environmental Mercury in the Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Subtypes. (2017)

“Exposure to organic forms of mercury has the theoretical capacity to generate a range of immune abnormalities coupled with chronic nitro-oxidative stress seen in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).” Molecular Neurobiology 2018
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28733900/


Reduced levels of mercury in first baby haircuts of autistic children

“Reported rates of autism have increased sharply in the United States and the United Kingdom. One possible factor underlying these increases is increased exposure to mercury through thimerosal-containing vaccines, but vaccine exposures need to be evaluated in the context of cumulative exposures during gestation and early infancy.” International Journal of Toxicology 2003
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12933322


The role of mercury in the pathogenesis of autism.

“Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown etiology in most cases. Studies of monozygotic twins report an average 60% concordance rate, indicating a role for both genetic and environmental factors in disease expression.1 Recent reviews in environmental health have suggested that early exposure to hazardous substances may underlie some cases of neurodevelopmental disorders, including ADHD, learning disabilities, and speech/language difficulties.” Molecular Psychiatry 2002
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/bdf1/1ae7d78c1ed1efcbf3637d1e384dac43557e.pdf


Thimerosal and Animal Brains: New Data for Assessing Human Ethylmercury Risk

The researchers emphasize, however, that the risks associated with low-level exposures to inorganic mercury in the developing brain are unknown, and they describe other research linking persistent inorganic mercury exposure with increased activation of microglia in the brain, an effect recently reported in children with autism. They recommend further research focused specifically on the biotransformation of thimerosal and its neurotoxic potential.” Environ Health Perspect 2005
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1280369/


Thimerosal as discrimination: vaccine disparity in the UN Minamata Convention on mercury.

“Consequently, a double standard in vaccine safety, which previously existed due to ignorance and economic reasons, has now been institutionalised as global policy. Ultimately, the Minamata Convention on Hg has sanctioned the inequitable distribution of thimerosal by specifically exempting TCVs from regulation, condoning a two-tier standard of vaccine safety: a predominantly no-thimerosal and reduced-thimerosal standard for developed nations and a predominantly thimerosal-containing one for developing nations. This disparity must now be evaluated urgently as a potential form of institutionalised discrimination.” Indian Journal of Medical Ethics 2014
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25101548/


Thimerosal exposure and disturbance of emotions specific to childhood and adolescence: A case-control study in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) database. 2017

“CONCLUSIONS: The results show a significant relationship between Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines and the subsequent risk of an ED diagnosis.” Brain Injury 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28102704


Thimerosal exposure in early life and neuropsychological outcomes 7-10 years later.

“There was a small, but statistically significant association between early thimerosal exposure and the presence of tics in boys.” Journal of Pediatric Psychology 2012
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21785120


Thimerosal-Derived Ethylmercury Is a Mitochondrial Toxin in Human Astrocytes: Possible Role of Fenton Chemistry in the Oxidation and Breakage of mtDNA

“The results of this study suggest that ethylmercury is a mitochondrial toxin in human astrocytes. We believe that this finding is important, particularly since the number of diseases in which mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated are rapidly increasing.” Journal of Toxicology 2012
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jt/2012/373678/


Thimerosal induces neuronal cell apoptosis by causing cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor release from mitochondria.

“Our data suggest that thimerosal causes apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells by changing the mitochondrial microenvironment.” International Journal of Molecular Medicine 2005
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16273274/


A two-phased population epidemiological study of the safety of thimerosal-containing vaccines: a follow-up analysis.

“Phase one showed significantly increased risks for autism, speech disorders, mental retardation, personality disorders, and thinking abnormalities reported to VAERS following thimerosal-containing DTaP vaccines in comparison to thimerosal-free DTaP vaccines. Phase two showed significant associations between cumulative exposures to thimerosal and the following types of NDs: unspecified developmental delay, tics, attention deficit disorder (ADD), language delay, speech delay, and neurodevelopmental delays in general.” Medical Science Monitor 2005
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15795695


Vaccines without thiomersal: why so necessary, why so long coming?

“The potential toxicity in children seems to be of much more concern to them than the hidden sensitising properties of thiomersal. In The Netherlands, unlike many other countries, the exposure to thiomersal from pharmaceutical sources has already been reduced. Replacement of thiomersal in all products should have a high priority in all countries.” Drugs 2001
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/11368282/

 

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